Uburyo 6 u Rwanda rukoresha amazi neza mu guhangana n’imihindagurikire y’ikirere

  • NTAWITONDA JEAN CLAUDE
  • Gicurasi 18, 2022
  • Hashize imyaka 2
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Amazi ni umusingi ukomeye mu buzima bwa muntu kandi kuyakoresha neza biri mu by’ibanze mu kugera ku iterambere rirambye. Mu Rwanda, hari intambwe igaragara imaze guterwa mu kurushaho kunoza uburyo abaturage bagerwaho n’amazi binyuze mu kurinda umutungo kamere w’amazi, gukumira icyakwanduza amazi, no gukumira imyuzure.

Intambwe imaze guterwa mu kugeza amazi ku baturage no kuyakwirakwiza yagezweho binyuze muri Gahunda ikomatanyije yo gucunga umutungo kamere w’amazi yagize uruhare rukomeye cyane mu kugera kuri Politiki y’u Rwanda yo kubaka ubukungu butangiza ibindukikije no guhangana n’Imihindagurikire y’Ikirere, uburyo bukurikira uko ari butandatu zigaragaza uko u Rwanda rucungamo amazi mu guhangana n’imihindagurikire y’ikirere.

1. Gushinga ikigo gishinzwe Umutungo Kamere w’Amazi mu Rwanda (RWB)

Ikigo gishinzwe Umutungo Kamere w’Amazi mu Rwanda (RWB) cyashyizweho mu mwaka wa 2020 hagamijwe guharanira ko haboneka amazi ahagije kandi abungabunzwe neza mu guharanira iterambere rirambye.

Iki kigo gishinzwe gushyira mu bikorwa politiki z’Igihugu, amategeko na gahunda birebana n’umutungo kamere w’amazi, kugenzura igenamigambi rihuriweho ry’umutungo w’amazi, gufata amazi no kurwanya isuri, gutanga impushya zo gucunga amazi, guhangana n’imyuzure no guteza imbere ububiko bwayo.

Iki kigo kandi kigenzura kandi imikoreshereze n’imicungire myiza y’amazi. Ishyirwaho ry’Ikigo gishinzwe Umutungo Kamere w’Amazi mu Rwanda rigaragaza ubushake bwa Guverinoma bwo kubungabunga amazi n’akamaro kayo mu guhindura imibereho n’ubukungu by’Igihugu.

Byinshi ku birebana n’Ikigo gishinzwe Umutungo Kamere w’ Amazi mu Rwanda wabisanga kuri www.rwb.rw.

2. Ishyirwaho ry’impushya mu gukoresha umutungo kamere w’amazi

Gukenera gukoresha Umutungo kamere w’amazi mu Rwanda bikomeje kwiyongera kandi Igihugu gikeneye kumenya ingano y’amazi akoreshwa, abayakoresha, uburyo bayakoreshamo ndetse n’aho bayakoresha. Iyo ibyo bimaze kumenyekana, bishobora kugereranywa n’ingano y’amazi ihari ndetse n’ikwiye gukoreshwa hagamijwe gucunga uyu mutungo kamera neza kandi mu buryo burambye.

Itegeko rigenga imikoreshereze n’imicungire y’umutungo kamere w’amazi mu Rwanda riha Ikigo cy’Igihugu gishinzwe Umutungo Kamere w’ Amazi mu Rwanda (RWB) ububasha bwo gukusanya amakuru yose akenewe mu kunoza imicungire y’amasoko y’amazi. Imitangire y’impushya ku mikoreshereze y’uwo mutungo kamere ni bumwe muri ubwo bubasha cyahawe.

Kubera iki hatangwa impushya mu gukoresha umutungo kamere w’amazi?

● Gucunga neza umutungo kamere w’amazi:  Gucunga neza ikoreshwa ry’umutungo kamere w’amazi no kwimakaza ibikorwa bitanga inyungu mu guteza imbere ubukungu bw’Igihugu.

● Gusaranganya umutungo kamere w’amazi mu buryo bungana: Mu rwego rwo gusaranganya kugira ngo babashe kugabura amazi, abashinzwe umutungo kamere w’amazi bagomba kumenya ingano y’amazi aboneka, n’uburyo asanzwe akoreshwa.

● Kubungabunga ibidukikije: Abashinzwe umutungo kamere w’amazi bagomba kumenya neza ko amazi akoreshwa neza, mu buryo buteguye neza, kandi ko ibiyanduza byagabanyijwe ku buryo bufatika. Mu gihe cyo gutanga umutungo kamere w’amazi kugira ngo ukoreshwe mu buryo butandukanye, abashinzwe uwo mutungo bagomba guharanira ko uruhererekane rw’ibidukikije rukomeza kuboneka.

Amazi y’inzuzi n’imigezi abungabungwa ku bufatanye bw’inzego zitandukanye

Imitangire y’ibyangombwa ikorwa hifashishijwe ikoranabunga (application) rifasha abakoresha amazi gusaba ibyangombwa bakeneye. Iyo mikorere ya serivisi zo gutanga ibyangombwa ifasha mu micungire iboneye y’umutungo kamere w’amazi. Ibyo byangombwa ushobora kubigeraho unyuze kuri www.waterpermit.rwb.rw.

3. Gahunda yo gufata no kubika amazi

U Rwanda rufite imvura nyinshi ku kigero cya mm 1,200 buri mwaka, bituma gufata amazi y’imvura buba ubundi buryo bwo kubona amazi mu rwego rwo guhaza ubusabe bw’amazi bukomeza kwiyongera, guharanira iterambere ry’imibereho n’ubukungu ndetse no kubungabunga ibidukikije.

Nubwo bimeze bityo ariko, u Rwanda rukomeza gufatwa nka kimwe mu bihugu bifite amazi make bitewe n’ubushobozi buke bwarwo bwo kuyabika.

Imishinga itari mike yashyizwe mu bikorwa kugira ngo iyi ntego igerweho kandi yose yagaragaje ko hari amahirwe menshi yo gufata amazi y’imvura mu gihugu hose.

Nk’uko bigaragara muri raporo nshya mu gufata no kubika amazi, mu Rwanda haboneka uburyo butatu bw’ingenzi butari karemano bwo kubika amazi. Muri bwo harimo ibyuzi by’amazi bikoreshwa mu kuhira imyaka ku buso buto, ibibumbiro, ibidamu n’ingomero zifashishwa mu kubyara ingufu z’amashanyarazi.

Iyi Raporo yagaragaje ko kuri ubu u Rwanda rufite ibyuzi by’amazi 1,414 bifite ubushobozi bwo kubika metero kibe 131,603, ibyanya by’ingomero 77 bifite ubushobozi bwo kubika metero kibe miliyoni 8 n’ibidamu 50 bifite ubushobozi bwo kubika metero kibe miliyoni 75.

Hakomeje gushyirwa imbaraga mu kongera ubushobozi bw’Igihugu bwo  kubika amazi, no kunoza uburyo bwo gufata amazi mu ngo z’abaturage.

4. Ubufatanye mu gucunga umutungo kamere w’amazi

Kwimakaza imicungire y’umutungo kamere w’amazi mu igenamigambi ry’Uturere

Hagati y’umwaka wa 2017 na 2018, GGGI – umuryango mpuzamahanga ufasha ibihugu biri mu nzira y’iterambere kugera ku bukungu burambye harangerwa ibidukikije, yafashije Uturere mu gutegura gahunda z’iterambere ryatwo tuzagenderaho kugeza mu mwaka wa 2024. GGGI yatanze inzobere kugira ngo zitange ubujyanama bwimbitse mu itegurwa rya za gahunda z’iterambere mu mijyi 6 yunganira Umujyi wa Kigali ari yo Huye, Muhanga, Musanze, Nyagatare, Rubavu na Rusizi.

GGGI yaharaniye ko mu igenamigambi ry’Uturere mu iterambere hitabwa by’umwihariko ku micungire iboneye y’umutungo kamere w’amazi binyuze muri gahunda ikomatanyije yo kubungabunga umutungo w’amazi (IWRM) ifatwa nk’ikora ku nzego zose zigira uruhare mu iterambere rirambye ry’Akarere.

Ibikorwa byihariye birimo kwita kurinda inkengero z’imigezi, kongera umubare w’ingo zifite ibigega n’ubundi buryo bwo gufata amazi y’imvura n’ibindi. Ibyo biteganyijwe kuba ingirakamaro mu rugendo rwo kugeza amazi meza ku baturage, kuhira imyaka mu buryo bugezweho, gukora ubuhinzi bugamije ubucuruzi, no gutanga amahirwe y’inyongera yo kugera ku iterambere rirambye.

Umushinga w‘amazi mu iterambere ry’u Rwanda – Water for Growth Rwanda’

Umushinga w’imyaka ine ‘Water for Growth Rwanda’ (W4GR) watangiye mu mwaka wa 2017, uri mu bufatanye bw’ibihugu by’u Rwanda n’u  Buholandi, ukaba warafashije Minisiteri y’Ibidukikije gushyira mu bikorwa gahunda ikomatanyije yo kunoza imicungire n’imikoreshereze y’umutungo kamere w’amazi. Intego nyamukuru yari iyo kugeza umutungo kamere w’amazi kuri bose, mu buryo bunoze kandi bubungabunga ibidukikije ku buryo burambye.

Umushinga W4GR wakoze gahunda zo gufata amazi kuri 30% by’ubuso bw’igihugu, zirimo n’igenamigambi rirambuye ryo gukwirakwiza amazi mu bihe bitandukanye kugeza mu mwaka wa 2050.

Kuri ubu u Rwanda ruzi ingano y’amazi ishobora gukoreshwa mu kuhira imyaka, mu nganda, mu bworozi, mu mirimo yo mu ngo ndetse no ku bidukikije. Ayo makuru yavuye mu bushakashatsi yahishuye ikibazo cy’amazi make inerekana ko hakenewe ivugururwa mu gishushanyombonera cya gahunda yo kuhira ndetse no muri Politiki igenga umusaruro w’ibiribwa.

Uyu mushinga kandi wanafashije gushyiraho Ikigo gishinzwe Umutungo Kamere w’Amazi mu Rwanda (RWB), ari na cyo kigenzura ikwirakwizwa ry’amazi mu kwirinda amakimbirane, kunoza ubuziranenge bw’amazi, kuvugurura ibyanya bifata amazi, gukumira no kurwanya isuri, gushyiraho ingamba zo guhangana n’imyuzure mu gihe cy’imvura ndetse n’amapfa mu gihe cy’izuba.

Umushiga Ukomatanyije w’Imicungire y’Umutungo Kamere w’Amazi- IUCN

Intego y’Umushinga Ukomatanyije w’Imicungire y’Umutungo Kamere w’Amazi (IWRM) ni iyo gushyira mu bikorwa imicungire irambye y’amazi n’ibishanga no kwinjiza urusobe rw’ibinyabuzima muri gahunda ya IWRM hagamijwe gushyigikira kugabanya ubukene, iterambere rigera kuri bose, guhangana n’imihindagurikire y’ikirere no kubungabunga ibinyabuzima bitandukanye.

Uyu mushinga ufite inzego esheshatu uzibandaho ari zo:

● Kunoza imiyoborere n’imicungire y’ibikorwa by’amazi

● Gushora imari mu bikorwa remezo by’umutungo kamere w’amazi

● Kwimakaza uruhare rw’amazi mu iterambere

● Kongera ubumenyi ku mutungo kamere w’amazi mu Rwanda

● Kwimakaza Imikoranire myiza n’ubufatanye mu gukoresha no gucunga neza umutungo kamere w’amazi

● Imihindagurikire y’Ikirere, uburinganire, abantu n’uburenganzira

5. Kunoza gahunda zo kurwanya no kwirinda imyuzure mu mijyi

Mu guhangana n’ibibazo by’imyuzure mu Mujyi wa Kigali n’indi mijyi mu gihugu, hatangijwe gahunda zitandukanye. Ikigo gishinzwe Umutungo Kamere w’Amazi mu Rwanda (RWB) cyubatse Sitasiyo 15 zitanga amakuru yizewe ku nkengero z’amazi mu bihe bitandukanye. Ibyo bifasha mu gukurikirana za ruhurura n’ahandi hantu hibasirwa n’imyuzure bigatuma hafatwa ingamba hakiri kare.

Hubatswe ruhurura zisaga 40, hakorwa ubugenzuzi ngo hamenyekane ingo zituye aho zishobora kwibasirwa n’umwuzure bituma imiryango isaga 5,000 yari ituye mu manegeka yashobora gushyira ubuzima bwabo mu kaga yimurirwa mu bice bitekanye. 

6. Kubungabunga no kuvugurura ibishanga

Kwangirika kw’ibishanga ndetse no kwandura kwabyo byagize ingaruka zikomeye ku buziranenge bw’amazi n’ingano yayo. Igabanyuka ry’ubushobozi bw’ibishanga bwo gusigasira urusobe rw’ibinyabuzima rutandukanye ritera ubwiyongere bw’imyuzure rigatwara n’ubuzima bw’abantu, ibikorwa remezo bikangirika, umusaruro w’ubuhinzi ukagabanyuka ndetse n’amazi agakama.

Ni yo mpamvu u Rwanda rwimakaje gahunda yo kuvugurura ibishanga, by’umwihariko mu bice by’imijyi.

U Rwanda rwageze kuri byinshi bikurikira mu micungire y’ibishanga, birimo:

● Ivugururwa ry’ibikorwa by’ingenzi bigize uruhurirane rw’ibishanga. Nk’urugero, ivugururwa ry’igishanga cy’Urugezi guhera mu mwaka wa 2005 ryatumye cyongerwa ku rutonde rw’ibishanga bigengwa n’amasezerano ya RAMSAR ku Isi, ndetse kinabona igihembo mpuzamahanga mu 2010.

● Imishinga minini yo kongera gusana ibishanga irimo icyiciro cya kabiri cy’Umushinga wo Guteza Imbere Imijyi (RUDPII), Uwo gushyira mu byiciro ibishanga byose no kwimura inganda zabarizwaga mu cyanya cyahariwe inganda cyari mu gishanga zerekezwa Masoro mu kindi cyanya aho zibereye kuba.

● Himuwe kandi ibikorwa by’ubucuruzi bisaga 6,000 (amagaraji y’imodoka, parikingi n’inganda) n’ibikorwa by’ingo bikurwa mu bishanga byari mu mujyi kugira ngo byongere gutunganywa.

● Itegurwa ry’igishushanyombonera cy’ibishanga ryerekanye ko nibura kilometero kare 15, zigize 20% by’ibishanga byo mu mijyi bizongera gusanwa, mu gihe 29% byamaze kwemezwa nk’ibigomba gukoreshwa mu buryo burambye, 38% bigafasha mu kubungabunga urusobe rw’ibinyabuzima hanyuma ahasigaye hakifashwa mu bukerarugendo no kuruhuka. 

Ikindi kintu cy’ingenzi cyagezweho ni icyo gutunganya igishanga cya Nyandungu mu Mujiyi wa Kigali, mu buryo bufasha guhangana n’imihindagurikire y’ikirere kandi bubereye ubukerarugendo, cyashyizwe mu bikorwa n’Ikigo cy’Igihugu gishinzwe Kubungabunga Ibidukikije (REMA) nyuma y’ishoramari ryakozwe n’Ikigega cy’Ibidukikije mu Rwanda  – FONERWA (Rwanda Green Fund), Ishami ry’Umuryango w’Abibumbye ryita ku Bidukikije (UN Environment) na Leta y’u Butaliyani.

Iki cyanya cya Nyandungu kiri kuri hegitari 120 kikaba kirimo ibikorwa bitandukanye nk’ibyuzi bikozwe mu buryo bw’umutako, amashyamba atewe mu buryo bubereye ijisho, ubusitani burimo ibihingwa byifashishwa mu buvuzi, uduhanda tw’abanyamaguru dushashe neza ndetse n’inzira z’amagare, resitora, ishakiro ry’amakuru ndetse n’ahagenewe izindi serivisi zijyanye no kuruhuka.

Uyu mushinga ntiwateguriwe gutanga inyungu z’ubusabane n’ubukungu gusa, ahubwo unashyigikira uburyo bushya bwo gusubiranya no kubungabunga urusobe rw’ibinyabuzima rubarizwa mu bishanga, bikajyana no kwimakaza imicungire irambye y’umutungo kamere.

Umutungo Kamere w’amazi urabungabunzwe muri Pariki ya Nyandungu
  • NTAWITONDA JEAN CLAUDE
  • Gicurasi 18, 2022
  • Hashize imyaka 2
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