Nelson Mandela yafunguwe ku ya 11 Gashyantare 1990

  • NYIRANEZA JUDITH
  • Gashyantare 11, 2024
  • Hashize ibyumweru 3
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Nyakwigendera Nelson Mandela yari umunyapolitiki wo muri Afurika y’Epfo wafunzwe imyaka 27,5 kuko yarwanyaga ubutegetsi bwa bagashakabuhake, hanyuma afungurwa ku itariki ya 11 Gashyantare 1990

Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela yavukiye ahahoze hitwa Bantoustan muri Afurika y’Epfo. Se yari umwe mu bayobozi b’ubwoko bwa Xhosa. Amaze kubona impamyabumenyi mu by’amategeko mu 1942 muri kaminuza ya Witwatersrand i Johannesburg, yinjiye muri ANC yari ishyaka rya politiki rivuguruye ryari ririmo ahanini abari bishoboye b’abirabura.

Hamwe na Oliver Tambo, Nelson Mandela yashinze ikigo cya mbere cy’amategeko y’abirabura muri Afurika y’Epfo, hanyuma, muri Werurwe 1944, ashinga Ishyirahamwe ry’urubyiruko rwa ANC. Igihe ivanguramoko (Apartheid) ryemejwe na Minisitiri w’Intebe w’Afurika y’Epfo Daniel Malan mu 1948, Nelson Mandela na Olivier Tambo bashoboye kuba abayobozi ba ANC hamwe n’Ishirahamwe rw’Urubyiruko.

Nelson Mandela yavutse ku ya 18 Nyakanga 1918 muri Afurika y’Epfo. Yari azwiho kuba umunyapolitiki ku isonga mu kurwanya ivanguramoko Apartheid, ubutegetsi bw’abazungu bo muri Afurika y’Epfo bwapyinagazaga kandi bugaheza abirabura baho, nyuma byatumye agera kuri Perezidansi y’Afurika y’Epfo kuva 1994 kugeza 1999.

Ubuzima bwe bwashingiye ku kurwanya amacakubiri ashingiye ku moko. Ku bw’ibyo, yatsindiye igihembo cy’amahoro cyitiriwe Nobel mu 1993.

Mu rwego rwo kwamagana gutwara pasiporo ku gahato, ikurikizwa kuva itegeko ryashyirwa ahagaragara, imyigaragambyo myinshi yarateguwe muri Afurika y’Epfo, ku nkunga ANC 9 l’African National Congress) na PAC (Panafrican Congress).  Mu gace ka Sharpeville hahinduka mu mubabaro n’agahinda kuko abapolisi barashe ku bigaragambaya. Hapfuye abantu barenga 60 abandi bagera kuri 180 barakomereka.

Nyakwigendera Nelson Mandela yaharaniye uburenganzira bw’abirabura muri Afurika y’Epfo

Nyuma hakomeje imvururu ndetse mu buryo bwa rwihishwa kandi bafata n’intwaro. Bimaze kugenda gutyo, Loni yafatiye ibihano Afurika y’Epfo, ubwo hari ku itariki ya 6 Ugushyingo 1962.

Nyuma y’imyaka myinshi yo kurwanya Apartheid, Nelson Mandela yatawe muri yombi aranaburanishwa, ku itariki ya 12 Kamena 1964 na bagenzi be barindwi bakatiwe igifungo cya burundu bazira ibyiswe kubangamira ubuyobozi bw’abazungu bwariho afungirwa muri gereza ya Paarl.

Mu gihe cyose yari afunzwe, yanze kurekurwa ngo yamagane imiyoborere y’abazungu bayoboraga ariko bagaheza kandi bakagirira nabi abirabura bo muri Afurika y’Epfo, akomeza kwamagana ivanguramoko.

Amaherezo Nelson Mandela yarekuwe ku ya 11 Gashyantare 1990 nyuma yo kumara imyaka 27 muri gereza. Guverinoma y’Afurika y’Epfo yemereye Ishyaka ry’Abakomunisiti na ANC, Mandela yabaye Perezida mu 1991 gukora.

Tariki ya 15 Ukwakira 1993, yahawe igihembo cy’amahoro cyitiriwe Nobel. Amatora ya mbere yemereye abantu benshi kwiyamamaza ndetse adashingiye ku moko yabaye mu 1994.

ANC yagize intsinzi ihambaye cyane muri uwo mwaka, Nelson Mandela aba Perezida w’Afurika y’Epfo, umwanya yari afite kugeza mu 1999, ubwo yaje gusimburwa na Thabo Mbeki.

Nelson Mandela yashinze Fondasiyo Nelson Mandela mu 1999 maze yitangira kurwanya SIDA nyuma y’urupfu rw’umuhungu we mu 2005.

Nelson Mandela yitabye Imana ku wa 5 Ukuboza 2013 afite imyaka 95.

South African National Congress President Nelson Mandela delivers an address in 1990.
  • NYIRANEZA JUDITH
  • Gashyantare 11, 2024
  • Hashize ibyumweru 3
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