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Ni nde ukwiye kubazwa ireme ry’uburezi mu Rwanda?

Yanditswe na NTAWITONDA JEAN CLAUDE

Ku ya 16-10-2018 saa 11:44:32
Ubufatanye mu burezi ni wo musingi wo kugera ku kerekezo u Rwanda rwihaye

Urwego rw’uburezi mu Rwanda ni rumwe mu nzego zashyizwemo imbaraga ndetse hakorwamo amavugurura mu bihe bitandukanye hagamijwe kugera ku burere n’uburezi bufite ireme.

Guverinoma y’u Rwanda yashyizeho politiki zizahura uburezi n’inzego zizishyira mu bikorwa guhera hasi, mu rwego rwo kugeza abana b’u Rwanda ku burezi bubagirira akamaro bakakagirira n’igihugu. Muri uru rugendo, hari impinduka zigaragariza mu byagezweho, ariko haracyari ibikeneye kunozwa ngo igihugu kibone umusaruro witezwe ku burezi.

Mu kiganiro kirambuye Imvaho Nshya yagiranye n’Umuyobozi Mukuru w’Ikigo k’Igihugu gishinzwe guteza imbere uburezi mu Rwanda (REB) Dr. Ndayambaje Irénée, yatanze ibisobanuro kuri bimwe mu bibazo Abanyarwanda bibaza ku ireme ry’uburezi n’icyakorwa ngo igihugu kigere ku ntego yo kuba igicumbi cy’ubwenge.

Imvaho Nshya: Iyo havuzwe ireme ry’uburezi umuntu yakumva iki?

Dr. Ndayambaje: Ubundi iyo tuvuze ireme ry’uburezi tuba tuvuze ibintu bine: Icya mbere ni ibyinjira mu burezi (input) nk’abana baza kwiga, aho baturutse, amanota bagiye batsindiraho n’ubushobozi bafite. Iyo umaze kureba ibyo mu mashuri ureba n’ubushobozi bw’abarimu babigisha, niba babona amahugurwa kuko n’ubumenyi burahinduka. Uko abana binjira mu ishuri bafite ingero zitandukanye z’imitsindire, uko ishuri rifite abarimu babifitiye ubushobozi, ibikoresho byose nka mudasobwa, ibyo ni ibipimo wafata ukavuga uti «rya reme ry’uburezi rirahari cyangwa ntirihari.»

Urundi rwego rukomeye cyane ni icyo twita «activity» cyangwa «process». Bya bintu byose bishobora kuba bihari, ariko noneho ni gute iyo bigiye hamwe bibyazwa umusaruro? Ushobora kuba ufite ishuri rifite ibikoresho bisabwa, abarimu b’ibitangaza n’abana baratsindiye ku manota yo hejuru ariko abarezi ntibakore neza akazi kabo. Buriya mwarimu ni we ufite mu biganza ibigomba kubera mu ishuri; iyo atateguye amasomo yagera no mu ishuri ntagire umuhate wo kwigisha, rya reme ry’uburezi riba risubira inyuma.

Ahandi hantu dupimira ireme ry’uburezi ni umusaruro w’ako kanya uva mu burezi (output); ndavuga amanota abana bagaragaza mu mikoro bahabwa ku ishuri, ayo bagira mu bizamini bahabwa bisoza igihembwe n’amanota asoza ikiciro cy’amashuri abanza, icy’amashuri yisumbuye ndetse na kaminuza. Ariko na byo ntabwo bipfa kwikora biba biturutse mu byiciro bibiri byabanje.

Aho ushobora kuharenga ukagera ku rwego rwa kane rwo gupima ireme ry’uburezi. Uzabyumva ngo kaminuza zasohoye abantu 3000 bambaye amakanzu, ni byiza, ariko bagera ku isoko ry’umurimo abakoresha bakavuga bati «yewe rya reme ry’uburezi nta rihari…» Muri make ni urwego rupima izindi nzego zose, ni rwo twita umusaruro wa nyuma (impact).

Dr. Ndayambaje Irénée, Umuyobozi Mukuru w’Ikigo k’Igihugu gishinzwe guteza imbere uburezi mu Rwanda (REB)

Imvaho Nshya: Ese mu nzego zose zavuzwe haruguru mubona ari he hakenewe imbaraga nyinshi kugira ngo ireme ry’uburezi rikomeze gusigasirwa?

Dr. Ndayambaje: Burya muri uru rugendo nta na hamwe hadakwiye imbaraga, ariko hari ahakeneye imbaraga cyane. Nkurikije uko urugendo rw’uburezi mu Rwanda rwagenze hari byinshi byakozwe, bivuze ko hari aho tumaze kugera.

Ubu tugomba gushyira imbaraga ku kiciro cya kabiri cy’uburyo ibyinjira mu burezi bibyazwa umusaruro (process). Ibitabo bishobora kuza ariko bigashyirwa mu bubiko ntibitizwe abana ndetse n’abarimu ntibabisome, mudasobwa zigatangwa ariko zigahera mu bubiko. Aho tugeze mu kwimakaza rya reme ry’uburezi ni ukwinjira mu mashuri tukamenya ibiyakorerwamo, tukamenya icyo mwarimu akora n’uko abana biga.

Imvaho Nshya: Ese ntimwaba mwibanda ku mashuri ya Leta gusa?

Dr. Ndayambaje: Oya, ntabwo ari amashuri ya Leta gusa harimo afitanye amasezerano na Leta, ayigenga, kaminuza za Leta n’izigenga. Muri gahunda y’ubukangurambaga ku burezi tujya mu burezi bw’imyaka 9 na 12, mu mashuri y’imyuga n’ubumenyingiro ndetse na za kaminuza. Aho hose bikorerwa icyarimwe nta shuri dusiga inyuma bitewe n’uko abayigamo ari Abanyarwanda kandi ishuri ryigenga rigendera ku nteganyanyigisho ya Leta.

Imvaho Nshya: Ni nde ufite inshingano zo guhirimbanira ko uburezi bufite ireme bugerwaho?

Dr. Ndayambaje: Mu by’ukuri ntabwo bigerwaho n’urwego rumwe gusa. Ni ukuvuga ngo umwana aturuka mu muryango; niba umubyeyi avuga ati «ngewe iyo natanze amafaranga y’ishuri akazi kange mba nakarangije», n’umwana akavuga ati «mwarimu nakore akazi ke arabihemberwa» ntashyireho umuhate, rya reme ry’uburezi riba risigaye inyuma. Ubuyobozi bw’ikigo ndetse n’abarezi iyo badakoze inshingano zabo na bwo rya reme ry’uburezi riba ridindiye. Abaturiye ishuri n’umuryango nyarwanda muri rusange, iyo buri wese adatanze umusanzu nk’uruhare rwe biba bibi.

Tuvuge rwiyemezamirimo watsindiye gukora intebe zo mu mashuri ntazitangire igihe abanyeshuri bakiga bahagaze, rya reme ry’uburezi aba arimo kuryica. Niba ugomba kugaburira ikigo k’ishuri ya mafunguro ntuyabagezeho ku gihe, umwana azaza mu ishuri asinzira ibyo yize ntabyumve neza bishobora kugira ingaruka ku buryo atsinda. Ni yo mpamvu abantu bavuga ko ireme ry’uburezi ryishwe na mwarimu, na REB cyangwa MINEDUC baba bibeshya ; ni urusobe rw’ibintu byinshi ntabwo ababigiramo uruhare ari mwarimu gusa, si abashyiraho politiki z’uburezi, ni abantu twese.

Imvaho Nshya: Hari ababazwa umusaruro uva mu burezi ntibibazwe za nzego zo hasi, ari na zo z’ingenzi mu gukora iyo bwabaga ngo umusaruro wifuzwa uboneke. Ni iki gikorwa kugira ngo buri wese yumve ko abifitemo uruhare ?

Dr. Ndayambaje: Ikintu cya mbere gikorwa ni ugushyiraho imirongo migari. Burya no kugira ngo ibikorwa bikunde haba hakenewe politiki zikorerwa ku rwego rwa Minisiteri y’Uburezi zikamanurwa mu bigo biyishamikiyeho ubundi bikagezwa ku mashuri, ibyo birakorwa. Ikindi ni amabwiriza na gahunda zigamije gusobanurira abantu ko politiki zishyirwaho atari ibintu bigomba kubikwa mu tubati, ni yo mpamvu muri Gashyantare na Werurwe by’uyu mwaka habayeho ubukangurambaga mu rwego rw’uburezi.

Minisiteri y’Uburezi n’ibigo biyishamikiyeho twajyaga mu mashuri turi hamwe n’inzego zirimo ubuyobozi bw’uturere, ubuyobozi bwa komite z’ababyeyi mu mashuri, abashizwe uburezi ku mirenge, abahagarariye Polisi n’Ingabo by’Igihugu, n’izindi nzego zose dukorana tugamije kureba niba ibiba byaravuzwe muri politiki bikorwa. Icya kabiri ni uko abashinzwe uburezi ku mirenge batanga raporo ngarukakwezi ku bikorwa baba barakoreye mu mashuri. Ibikorwa basabwa ni ugusura amashuri bakareba ibijyanye n’uko imyigire n’imyigishirize bigenda. Birashoboka ko wenda ikigo gishobora kuba cyaragize ibiza, ugasanga hari ishuri ritashoboye kwiga iminsi ibiri cyangwa itatu, burya bigira ingaruka ku kurangiza integanyanyigisho yose.Duteganya uburyo amasuzuma yategurwa hagendewe ku gipimo cy’uko amashuri yakurikije integanyanyigisho nk’uko raporo zabigaragaje.

Ikindi, dukorana inama n’abayobozi b’uturere bungirije bashinzwe imibereho myiza y’abaturage ndetse n’abayobozi bakuriye uburezi muri buri karere. Izi nama zikorwa ku buryo buhoraho mu buryo bwa «video conference» aho tuba twicaye hano i Kigali tukaganira bari mu turere twabo dufatanyije na Minisiteri y’Ubutegetsi bw’Igihugu (MINALOC), cyane ko ibikorwa byo kwita ku mashuri birimo n’inshingano zayo nubwo hari abashinzwe uburezi ku mirenge no ku turere bashyira uburezi inyuma kandi ari cyo bashinzwe.

Twasabye MINALOC ko abashinzwe uburezi ku turere n’imirenge bagaruka mu nshingano zabo haba hari n’ibindi basabwa gufasha inzego bakorana bikaza nyuma y’uko ibijyanye n’uburezi byamaze kugerwaho kandi yarabitwemereye. Ubu imihigo isangizwa Minisiteri y’Uburezi tukamenya ibyo bahiga noneho bakerekwa ibyihutirwa ku rwego rw’Igihugu bitewe n’aho dushaka kwerekeza uburezi bw’u Rwanda.

Imvaho Nshya: Hari ikibazo amwe mu mashuri yagiye agaragaza, k’infashanyigisho usanga zirimo amakosa. Ese ni gute mwateguye gukemura iki kibazo?

Dr. Ndayambaje: Ubundi ibyo bakunda kugarukaho ni ibitabo cyane. Mu myaka yashize ibitabo ntabwo byandikwaga na REB, byandikwaga na ba rwiyemezamirimo batsindiye amasoko. Iyo rwiyemezamirimo yamaraga kwerekwa ibyo agomba gukosora, we yasubiraga ku ruganda aho acapira agakosora hanyuma akazana ingero z’ibyakosowe.

Iyo yabaga afite isoko rinini ry’ibitabo bigomba kujya mu Rwanda hose kandi za ngero yazanye na bya bindi abakozi ba REB banyujijemo amaso, hari nk’ibitabo aba yaracapye mbere akavuga ati «ibi na byo bitazambera igihombo nzabicengezamo hagati bigendane n’ibindi…» Byagiye bibaho bitewe n’uko adashaka guhomba kandi na twe tuvuga tuti «turashaka ko ukosora», ibitabo akarenga akabikwiza mu mashuri kuko aba areba ku nyungu ze.

Imvaho Nshya: Ariko iyo ikibazo nk’icyo kivutse ntikijya kuri rwiyemezamirimo kuko aba atazwi, kijya kuri REB. Ni iki mwe mwakoze?

Dr. Ndayambaje: Icyo twakoze nka REB ni uko kuva mu mwaka ushize wa 2017 habaye umwanzuro ko ibitabo bijya mu mashuri y’u Rwanda bigomba kuba umutungo bwite wa REB. Ni ukuvuga ngo bigomba kwandikwa natwe kandi tukagira n’ububasha bwo kugira icyo duhinduramo icyo ari cyo cyose.

Urumva rwiyemezamirimo iyo umweretse ikosa ni we ugenda akarikosora ariko wowe nta burenganzira uba ufite bwo kugira icyo uhindura. Ni yo mpamvu twatangiye gahunda yo kwiyandikira ibitabo, ubu tumaze kwandika ibitabo 46 bitari byarigeze biboneka guhera mu 2016. Ubu tugeze ku rwego rwo kubyemeza (validation) tukabicapa bikajya mu mashuri.

Ibitabo byose twafashe umwanzuro ko tugiye kubyiyandikira ariko birashoboka ko hari abanditsi bari bafite ibitabo byiza twazakorana kugira ngo batugurishe uburenganzira bw’ibihangano byabo (copyright). Ni uburyo bugiye kudufasha, hagaragara ikosa tugahita turikosora.

Ababyeyi barasabwa gufasha abana gusubira mu masomo bageze mu rugo

Imvaho Nshya: Hari aho mwagarutse ku banyarwanda, ko na bo bafite uruhare mu ireme ry’uburezi, ariko hakaba hari ababyeyi baharira inshingano zabo abarimu. Ni iki REB ikora ku bacyumva ko kugeza abana ku ishuri bihagije ?

Dr. Ndayambaje: Ikintu cya mbere dukora ni ubukangurambaga bwagutse; iyo uvuze ijambo ireme ry’uburezi buri wese arakanguka kandi umubyeyi wohereje umwana ku ishuri hari n’iby’amutangaho ntiyifuza guhomba. Ababyeyi tubibutsa ko ari abafatanyabikorwa ba hafi, cyane ko umwana ntabwo aza ku ishuri ngo azarigumemo, rigira icyo rimufasha ariko agasubira mu muryango. Umubyeyi agomba gukorana natwe mu kwimakaza ireme ry’uburezi kubera umwana we niyiga neza hari ibyo azabasha kwikorera cyangwa se azanamufasha.

Ikindi kintu dushyizemo imbaraga cyane ni ibijyanye n’imiyoborere y’amashuri. Kuba mu Rwanda twishimira ibyo tumaze kugeraho ni ukubera imiyoborere myiza natwe tubona ko kugira ngo amashuri yacu ashobore kugira aho ava n’aho agera, ari uko imiyoborere igomba kuvugururwa. Vuba aha twatangije amahugurwa ku miyoborere mishya y’amashuri ijyana n’uburyo bwo guhindura imikorere mu mashuri (school improvement plan) aho agomba gutera imbere mu mimerere kandi akagira ikerekezo haba mu nyubako, mu mitsindire no mu mibereho y’abana. Byose bizagerwaho ku bufatanye n’abafatanyabikorwa navuze hejuru.

Imvaho Nshya: Murakoze cyane, sinzi niba hari ikindi mwakongeraho…

Dr. Ndayambaje : Ikindi nakongeraho ni uko umusaruro w’uburezi utoroha kuwubona ako kanya. Niba dutangiye gahunda runaka, impinduka zishobora kudasomwa uwo munsi ariko zigambiriye ikintu gikomeye mu minsi izaza. Ni yo mpamvu muri cya kerekezo u Rwanda rwihaye cyo kuba igicumbi cy’ubwenge aho ubukungu bwarwo buzaba bushingiye ku benegihugu, uko iminsi ihita buri wese akora uruhare rwe tuzagenda dusarura imbuto za rwa rugendo.

Umwanditsi:

NTAWITONDA JEAN CLAUDE

One Comment on “Ni nde ukwiye kubazwa ireme ry’uburezi mu Rwanda?”

  1. muraho ariko buriya njyewe mbona ireme ry’uburezi riri mubiganza bya mwarimu n’umubyeyi abandi baza ari abafasha naho MWARIMU mugihe atarahabwa agaciro ngo agire ubuzima bwiza nkabo yabugejejeho ntamusaruro byatanga ubuse abombona ntamibereho rwose abaminisitiri nabandi mwibuka MWARIMU KO ariwe ubagejeje aho muri naburiya guhora mubacunga bidindiza abana bacu ko numvango akazi kumuhamagaro ugakora Uko waramutse niba yaraye atariye azigisha? Umubyeyi kagame poul nahaguruka ireme rizaboneka naho abandi nimwirire muramubeshya umunsi yabafashe muzishyura ibyahombye byose.

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