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Kwibohora 25: Iterambere ry’ubuhinzi, kuva ku nkunga y’ibiryo mu 1995  

Yanditswe na Mukagahizi Rose

Ku ya 03-07-2019 saa 16:22:17
Kuhira imyaka nayo ni politiki yashyizweho hagamije kurwanya inzara, hongerwa umusaruro ukomoka ku buhinzi (Foto Mukagahizi R)

Imyaka 25 irashize u Rwanda rubohowe. Muri iyi myaka hatewe intambwe mu nzego zose, ndetse n’ubuhinzi  ntibwasigaye inyuma. Nyuma ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994, ubuhinzi bwatangiranye ibibazo kuko benshi mu babukoraga hagati ya 40% na 70% bari barishwe abandi barahunze, n’ibikoresho birangizwa.

Dr. Semwaga Octave, umuyobozi ushinzwe igenamigambi muri Minisiteri y’Ubuhinzi n’Ubworozi (MINAGRI) avuga ko urugendo rwo kwibohora mu buhinzi n’ubworozi rwatangiranye ibibazo bikomeye cyane. Nyuma ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, urwego rw’ubuhinzi n’ubworozi rwabuze abakozi b’ingenzi benshi. Hakurikijwe raporo ya MINAGRI y’ibikorwa muri 1996, hagati ya 40% na 70% by’abakozi bari barishwe cyangwa barahunze. Ubutaka buhinze, ikoreshwa ry’inyongeramusaruro, amatungo yaba amaremare cyangwa amagufi byari byaragabanutse cyane.

Hakurijwe raporo yavuzwe haruguru, ahari hahinze muri 1996, hagabanutseho 22% hagereranijwe n’ahari hahinze muri 1990. Inka zagabanutse ku kigero cya 80% naho  amatungo magufi yagabanutse ku kigero cya 90%. Ibi byatumye ibiribwa  bigabanuka mu gihugu ku kigero cya 50% n’umusaruro wo mu mwaka wa 1990.

Iryo gabanuka ry’umusaruro ryatumye Abanyarwanda batungwa n’imfashanyo z’ibiribwa. Nka PAM muri 1996, yatanze ibiribwa bingana na 61,608 MT (WFP, Report)

Uko uruhare rw’ubuhinzi n’ubwororozi rwagiye rwiyubaka

Politiki n’Ingamba Leta  yafashe, zagiye zituma ubukungu bw’Igihugu bugenda butera imbere; ibi bigatuma havuka indi mirimo atari ishingiye ku buhinzi n’ubworozi gusa. Ubuhinzi n’ubworozi bwakoreshaga abantu 86% (EDPR 1) muri 1995, mu gihe ubu bukoresha 69% gusa (EICV 5).

Ikindi uruhare rw’ubuhinzi n’Ubworozi mu bukungu bw’igihugu bugenda bugabanuka uko igihugu kigenda gitera imbere. Bwari 44% muri 1995, mu gihe muri 2018 ari 29%. Umusaruo w’ubuhinzi muri rusange wavuye kuri miliyari 702 RWF mu 1999 ugera kuri miliyari 1,934 RWF muri 2018. Ibi byerekana ko mu myaka 20 ishize umusaruro mbumbe w’igihugu mu buhinzi wabashije kwikuba hafi inshuru eshatu  (National Accounts, 2018). Ukwihaza mu biribwa kwagiye kwiyongera aho kwavuye kuri 76% muri 2006 kugera kuri 81.3% (CFSVA 2018 AND 2006).

Ubu ishami rishinzwe ibiribwa ku isi (WFP) risigaye rigurira abahinzi umusaruro ngo rige gutabara ahandi. Hagati ya 2014 na 2018, WFP yaguze umusaruro mu Rwanda ungana na 145,459 MT bifite agaciro ka 97,186,886 z’amadorali y’Amarika (WFP, Food purchase report 2018). Imbonerahamwe ikurikira irerekana ingero z’uko umusaruro wagiye wiyongera ku bihingwa bimwe na bimwe.

Imbonerahamwe: Umusaruro ku bihingwa by’ingenzi muri toni hagereranyijwe 1996 na 2018.

Amakuru dukesha: MINAGRI, Raporo y’ibikorwa 1996 n’Ubushakashatsi ku ikusanyamakuru 2018

Gahunda z’ingenzi zo mu buhinzi n’ubworozi

Gahunda yo kongera umusaruro w’ubuhinzi (CIP). Iyi gahunda igizwe n’inkingi zikurikira (i) guhuza ubutaka ku buso bunini kugira ngo buri karere kage gahinga ibihingwa bijyanye n’imitere yako hagamijwe kongera umusaruro no guhuza abahinzi n’amasoko, ubuso bungana na ha 870,076 bwarahujwe mu gihembwe cya 2019A. Iyi gahunda yatumye umusaruro w’ibihingwa uzamuka guhera 2008 kuva iyi gahunda yajyaho (MINAGRI, raporo y’imihigo 2018/2019)

Porogaramu ya Girinka kuri buri rugo rukennye mu rwego rwokongera umukamo no kubona ifumbire mborera. Ibi byatumye umusaruro w’amata uzamuka ndetse n’ubukungu ku ngo zabonye inka urazamuka ndetse binazamura imirire myiza ku bana bafata indyo ifite intungamubiri.

2018 ngo yasize inka zigeze ku 353,598 zimaze gutangwa muri gahunda ya Girinka. Umusaruro  w’amata wavuye kuri toni 142,511 muri 2005  ugera kuri toni  847,178 muri 2018. Ibi ngo ni ingaruka nziza za gahunda ya Girinka ndetse no kongera inka za kijyambere zitanga umukamo (Raporo ya RAB  2018)

Gahunda y’igihugu yo kuhira imyaka imusozi ndetse no mu bishanga hagamijwe guhangana n’amapfa yibasiraga uturere tumwe na tumwe. Ubu ubuso bwuhiwe bugeze kuri ha 61,333 (Mata, 2019) bwaravuye ku ha 27,000 muri 2012, bivuze ko bwikubye kabiri.

Gahunda yo kurinda imisozi isuri hakorejwe amaterasi y’indinganire. Kugeza 2018,ubuso bungana na ha 122,455 bw’amatersi yindinganire bwaratunganyijwe mu gihe bwari ha 46,000 muri 2012 (Imihigo 2018/2019)

Guhunda y’igihugu yo kunganira abahinzi mu kubona ivumbire mva ruganda ndetse no gukoresha imbuto zitubuye. Leta igira uruhare itangira umuhinzi kugira ngo hongerwa ifumbire mva ruganda ikoreshwa ndetse n’imbuto. Mu mwaka 2018, hakoreshejwe ifumbire ingana na toni 55,000 (Imihigo report 2017/2018)

Hagiyeho iyogeza buhinzi rya Twigire Muhinzi, aho abafasha myumvire berekera abahinzi uko ubuhinzi butanga umusaruro bukorwa hagendewe ku murima wikerekezo.

Inkingi za gahunda yo kuvugurura ubuhinzi n’ubworozi kugeza muri 2024

Ivugurwa rw’urwego rw’ubuhinzi n’ubwororozi ryashingiye cyane cyane kuri politiki n’ingamba zirimo ubushakashatsi n’iyamamaza buhinzi n’ubworozi, kongera umusaruro no guhangana n’ihindagurika ry’ibihe, amasoko meza no kongerera agaciro umusaruro,  guteza imbere imikorere n’imikoranire y’inzego.

Muri gahunda ya Girinka ngo umusaro w’amata wavuye kuri toni 142,511 muri 2005  ugera kuri toni  847,178 muri 2018. Ibi ngo ni ingaruka nziza za gahunda ya Girinka ndetse no kongera inka za kijyambere zitanga umukamo (Raporo ya  2018)

Umubare w’inka wavuye ku nka 692,000 mu 1996 ugera ku nka 1,293,768  muri 2018 aho hafi 62% zigizwe n’inka z’inzungu ndetse nizivanze (Raporo y’imihigo ya RAB na MINAGRI 2018 na Raporo y’ibikorwa ya 1996).

Abahinzi bishimira ibyo bagezeho

Abahinzi bashimira Leta y’Ubumwe bw’Abanyarwanda yabahaye Nkunganire ubu ngo bareza kera bari abakene. Ubu ngo abahinzi babaye urugero rw’ibishoboka, umuhinzi yifitiye ikizere.

Abahinzi batandukanye baganiriye n’Imvaho Nshya barimo Busuhuko Jean Bosco, umuhinzi mu murenge wa Gatunda Akarere ka Nyagatare, avuga ko yeza igitoki kirenza ibiro 150 kigaterurwa n’abantu bafite ingufu batatu.

Murerwa Epiphania, Umuyobozi wa Koperative KODUIBI, Koperative duteze imbere igihingwa k’ibigori Mugesera/Ngoma, avuga ko bateye imbere kubera ubuhinzi bw’ibigori bagendeye ku nama bahawe na Leta.

Shumbusho Telesphore wo mu murenge wa Buruhukiro muri Nyamagabe, avuga ko bishimira ko bahuje ubutaka ubu umuhinzi ni umukire, usanga ngo ari bo bafite moto zo gutemberaho ndetse n’imodoka nziza, amazu meza n’ibindi, abana b’abahinzi bariga mu mashuri meza, abahinzi ubu ni abasirimu haba mu myambarire no mu bitekerezo.

Mu bindi, abahinzi bavuga ko bibohoye ubukene, ngo umuhinzi wo hambere yari uwo guhinga ibijumba n’ibishyimbo munsi y’urugo akavangamo n’indi myaka ariko umuhinzi w’uyu munsi ashobora kuba umuntu ushobora gutanga akazi ku bandi.

Umugereka:

Bikeshwa: MINAGRI Raporo y’imihigo 2018/19

 

Umwanditsi:

Mukagahizi Rose

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