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Kwibohora 25: Ingano y’ingufu z’amashanyarazi yiyongereye 200%

Yanditswe na Ntawitonda Jean Claude

Ku ya 07-07-2019 saa 14:19:00
Imiyoboro y'amashanyarazi igenda yongererwa ubushobozi mu gihugu

Impinduka mu kongera ingufu z’amashanyarazi (power generation), kuyakwiza mu gihugu (transmission) no kuyegereza abaturage (distribution) ndetse no kuyakururira mu ngo (access) mu myaka 25 ishize zigaragarira ku musaruro wagaragaye mu ngo zicaniwe mu gihugu hose.

Imibare yerekanwa n’Ikigo k’Igihugu gishinzwe Ingufu (REG Ltd), igaragaza ko mbere y’umwaka wa 2005 u Rwanda rwose rwari rufite ingufu z’amashanyarazi zingana na Megawatt (MW) 41.8 zabonekaga mu ngufu z’amazi mu Majyaruguru y’u Rwanda.

Ingano y’ingufu mu Rwanda yiyongereye ku kigero cya 200% ku buryo kugeza ubu u Rwanda rufite MW 221.1 kubera ishoramari n’imbaraga Leta y’u Rwanda yashyize mu mishinga inyuranye.

Ubuyobozi bwa Sosiyete y’u Rwanda ishinzwe Ingufu (REG Ltd) buratangaza ko mu gihe u Rwanda rwizihiza isabukuru y’imyaka 25 yo kwibohora, intambwe imaze guterwa mu bijyanye n’amashanyaazi ari iyo kwishimirwa.

Eric Mihigo Umukozi mu Ishami rya REG rishinzwe guteza imbere ingufu (EDCL), yatangarije Imvaho Nshya ko kuba mbere Igihugu cyarasangiraga ingufu nke n’ibikorwa remezo bidahagije, byatumaga habaho ibura ry’amashanyarazi rya hato na hato ndetse akaba yabura mu gihugu hose.

Avuga ko nubwo mbere y’imyaka 25 ishize nta mibare ifatika yari ihari, iyagaragajwe mu mwaka wa 2012 yerekana ko ingo zacaniwe mu gihugu hose zavuye munsi ya 10% ubu zikaba zigeze hejuru ya 51%.

Yagize ati: “Hashingiwe ku kamaro k’amashanyarazi, mu myaka igera kuri 14 ishize ni bwo Guverinoma y’u Rwanda yashyize ingufu nyinshi mu kongera ingano y’ingufu, gukwiza amashanyarazi mu gihugu ndetse no kuyageza ku baturage, ku bufatanye n’abafatanyabikorwa batandukanye.”

Mihigo avuga ko kwikuba kw’ingufu z’amashanyarazi byakuyeho ibura ry’amashanyarazi rya hato na hato, kuba yabura mu gihugu hose (blackout), no kuyasaranganya kubera ubuke bwayo ubu ari amateka.

Yagize ati “Mu myaka 25 ishize Igihugu cyateye imbere mu rwego rw’amashanyarazi ku buryo tutagisaranganya amashanyarazi mu duce dutandukanye. Icyo gihe na mbere y’aho Igihugu cyose cyashoboraga kubura amashanyarazi kubera ko yaturukaga ahantu hamwe, ariko ubu ntibyashoboka kuko dufite inkomoko (sources) nyinshi; iyo imwe igize ikibazo indi isigara iziba icyuho.”

Avuga ko ibura ry’amashanyarazi rikigaragara by’igihe gito mu duce tumwe na tumwe riterwa n’ikibazo cyaba ari tekiniki, igihe haba hari ibikorwa byo gusanwa (maintenance), kwagurwa kw’imiyoboro cyangwa n’ibindi, ariko ngo ubu biragoye ko Igihugu cyose cyangwa igice kinini kiburira amashanyarazi rimwe.

Intara zose zisigaye zibyazwamo amashanyarazi

Imibare itangwa na REG Ltd yerekana ko ingufu z’amashanyarazi ziyongereye cyane guhera mu mwaka wa 2008, ziva kuri MW 70 zigera kuri MW 221.1 ziriho kugeza ubu, kubera inganda 53 zitanga amashanyarazi zakozwe mu duce tunyuranye tw’Igihugu.

Kuri ubu, ingomero z’amazi zitanga 45%, imashini zikoresha amavuta ya Diesel zigatanga 27%, Gaz Methane mu Kiyaga cya Kivu igatanga 14%, ingufu zituruka ku izuba zigatanga 6%, Nyiramugengeri igatanga 7% naho ingufu zituruka hanze 3%.

Uruganda rucukura rukanayungurura Gaz Methane mu kiyaga cya Kivu zigatanga MW 28

Intara y’Iburengerazuba ifite inganda 21 zitanga MW 75.9 zingana na 34.8% z’ubushobozi bwose mu gihugu. Iyi ntara igaragaramo uruganda rwa KivuWatt rubyara MW 26 ari na rwo rwa kabiri mu kubyara ingufu nyinshi, urwa Gishoma rubyara MW 15 muri Nyiramugengeri n’urwa Rusizi rubyara MW 12 rukoresha amazi y’umugezi wa Rusizi.

Perezida Kagame afungura ku mugaragaro umushinga wa ‘KivuWatt’ mu mwaka wa 2016

Intara y’Amajyepfo itanga 19% by’ingufu ziri ku murongo w’Igihugu. Muri iyi Ntara hubatswe inganda esheshatu zitanga MW 40.8 aho izikomeye muri zo ari urwa Nyabarongo ya I rutanga MW 28 n’urwa Rukarara ya I rutanga MW 9.8.

Urugomero rwa Nyabarongo rutanga MW 28 ku muyoboro w’Igihugu

Intara y’Amajyaruguru itanga MW 29.4 zingana na 13.5% by’ingano y’ingufu mu gihugu. Izi ngufu zituruka mu ngomero ikenda zirimo urwa Mukungwa ya I n’iya II, urwa Ntaruka ndetse n’izindi ngomero nto zubatswe ahatandukanye.

Intara y’Iburasirazuba ni yo ikusanywamo ingufu z’amashanyarazi nkeya zingana na MW 11.8. Uretse ingufu zibyazwa mu mirasire y’izuba, nta yandi mahirwe y’umutungo kamere Intara y’Iburasirazuba ifite yabyara ingufu, ugereranyije n’izindi ntara. Ingufu zihaboneka zibyazwa mu ruganda rw’i Rwamagana rutanga MW 8.5 ndetse n’urwa Nasho mu Karere ka Kirehe rutanga MW 3.3.

Umujyi wa Kigali ni wo wonyine ufite imashini zikoresha amavuta ya Diesel zikorera mu cyanya cyahariwe inganda i Masoro, iziherereye i Jabana ya I n‘iya II ndetse no mu Birembo.

Mihigo avuga ko kuba u Rwanda rutagikomora amashanyarai ku ngomero gusa byatumye habaho kwagura imiyoboro ndetse n’amakusanyirizo (substations) y’amashanyarazi mu gihugu hose.

Intego ihari ni uko amashanyarazi yagezwa kuri bose

Ubuyobozi bwa REG buvuga ko Guverinoma y’u Rwanda yihaye intego yo gukwiza amashanyarazi mu baturage byihuse kubera uruhare agira mu kwihutisha ubukungu n’imibereho myiza y’abaturage.

Mu guteza imbere imibereho n’ubukungu by’umuturage, mu mwaka wa 2008 hatangijwe Umushinga wo gukwirakwiza amashanyarazi mu gihugu EARP (Electricity Access Rollout Program) ugamije kugeza amashanyarazi kuri buri wese aho yaba aherereye mu gihugu.

Kuva muri uwo mwaka imiyoboro igeza amashanyarazi ku makusanyirizo mu gihugu hose igeze hafi kuri 70%, mu gihe hagenda hongerwa ibirometero by’imiyoboro y’amashanyarazi akwizwa mu baturage.

Leta y’u Rwanda yihaye gahunda y’uko bitarenze mu mwaka wa 2024 abaturage bose bazaba bafite amashanyarazi ku kigero cya 100%.

Mihigo ahamya ko hari ikizere cyo kwesa uyu muhigo ku bufatanye bwa Leta n’abikorera. Mu gihe Leta ishyira ingufu mu gucanira Abanyarwanda bahurijwe ku murongo w’Igihugu (national grid), abikorera bafite inshingano yo gucanira abasigaye bakoresheje ubundi buryo butandukanye (off-grid).

Ati: “Muri 51% bamaze gucanirwa ubu harimo ingo zifite amashanyarazi atari ku murongo w’Igihugu (off-grid) zingana na 13% zitangwa n’ibigo byigenga, hakabamo n’ingo zifite amashanyarazi ari ku murongo w’Igihugu (national grid) angana na 38%. Twizeye ko mu mwaka wa 2024 amashanyarazi ya ‘off-grid’ azaba acanira 48% by’abaturage bose, abandi 52% bari kuri ‘national grid’.”

Biteganyijwe ko nyuma y’umwaka wa 2024, abatari ku murongo w’Igihugu bazagenda bongerwaho buhorobuhoro.

Imishinga irimo gushyirwa mu bikorwa izatanga ingufu zihagije

Ubuyobozi bwa REG buratangaza ko nta kizahagarika intego yo kugeza amashanyarazi ku Banyarwanda bose mu gihe ibikorwa remezo byo gukwiza amashanyarazi bizaba bimaze kubakwa mu gihugu hose.

Mihigo avuga ko imishinga iteganyijwe kurangira bitarenze mu 2024 izasiga u Rwanda rwungutse Megawatt zisigaye muri MW 563 zikenewe,

Yagize ati: “Nk’ubu umwaka utaha dufite MW 80 zizava ku mushinga wa Nyiramugengeri i Mamba mu Karere ka Gisagara, ukaba ugeze ku kigero cya 83% wubakwa. Niziboneka ni rwo ruganda runini tuzaba dufite mu gihugu, urumva tuzava kuri MW 220 duhite tugera kuri MW 300 icyarimwe.”

Uwo mushinga wa Hakan wa Nyiramugengeri wiyongeraho uwa Symbion wa Gaz Methane witezweho Megawatt 50, n’uwa Rusumo wa Megawatt 80 usangiwe n’u Rwanda, Burundi na Tanzania aho u Rwanda ruzabonaho Megawatt zirenga 26.

Hari n’umushinga wa Rusizi III witezweho Megawatt 147 zizagabanywa hagati y’u Rwanda Burundi na Repubulika iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo. Aha u Rwanda ruzabonaho MW 48.

Umushinga wa Nyabarongo ya II uherereye i Shyorongi witezweho gutanga amazi, amashanyarazi no, na wo uzatanga Megawatt 120 zizaboneka mu byiciro: ikiciro cya mbere kitezweho Megawatt 43.5 na wo ukaba uri gutegurwa ngo uzatangire mu bihe bya vuba. Hari n’izindi ngomero nto zizabasha gutanga Megawatt zigera muri 30.

Mihigo yakomeje agira ati: “Dufite n’imiyoboro turi kubaka irimo uduhuza na Uganda wuzuye, uduhuza n’u Burundi n’undi uduhuza na Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo (RDC); na yo idufasha kongera ya mashanyarazi kuko nimara kuzura tuzakora ubucuruzi muri ibyo bihugu ku buryo ingufu zikenewe zishobora kugerwaho hadakoreshejwe ingano y’iziboneka mu gihugu gusa.”

REG Ltd ifite gahunda yo kongera amashanyarazi inakorana n’Ikigo cy’Igihugu gishinzwe Iterambere (RDB) mu gushaka abashoramari bo gushinga inganda nini ziyakoresha hamwe no kwagura imiyoboro iyakwiza mu gihugu byihutirwa.

Kugira amashanyarazi ntibisaba kuba urahurira ku ipoto gusa

Umugwaneza Clementine Umuhuzabikorwa w’Umushinga EARP ukorera mu kigo gishinzwe guteza imbere ingufu (EDCL), arasaba abaturage guhindura imyumvire ko umuriro bakeneye ari uturutse ku ipoto gusa.

Yashimangiye ko gahunda yo kugeza ingufu z’amashanyarazi ku bantu bose ishingiye ku kwitabaza izindi ngufu ziganjemo izikomoka ku mirasire y’izuba kuko byoroshye kuzikwiza mu baturage, cyane cyane abatuye aho bigoye kugeza amashanyarazi.

Ati: “Kubaka umuyoboro w’amashanyarazi ubwabyo bimara hagati y’amezi 18 na 24 udashyizemo uko bihenda n’amezi yo gushaka ibikoresho na ba rwiyemezamirimo, mu gihe iyo ari ‘Umurasire w’izuba’ (‘Panneau Solaire’) babigukorera bikarangira ako kanya.”

Abaturage benshi bakeneye umuriro muke bashobora kubona ku “Murasire w’izuba” (‘Panneau Solaire’) kuko baba bacana radiyo, bacomeka telefoni, bacana itara n’ibindi, bityo Guverinoma y’u Rwanda yiyemeje kongera umubare w’Abanyarwanda bahabwa umuriro udashamikiye ku muyoboro w’Igihugu (off grid) kugira ngo bose bacane byihuse.

Hatangiye kubakwa imiyoboro y’ubushobozi buhambaye

Imiyoboro y’amashanyarazi arahurwa mu bihugu by’abaturanyi ndetse n’arimo gukorwa kugeza ubu arimo gutegurirwa imiyoboro y’ubushobozi bwo hejuru (220kV), binajyana no kuvugurura imiyoboro ishaje, hashyirwaho imiyoboro mishya.

Mu myaka 25 ishize, Leta yashoye akayabo mu kwagura imiyoboro y’amashanyarazi ndetse no gusana iyari ihari yubatswe mu myaka ya 1960.

Nko mu mwaka wa 2017-2018, 30% by’ingengo y’imari byashyizwe mu bwubatsi b’imiyoboro igezweho ifite ubushobozi bukubye kabiri iyari isanzwe bituma imiyoboro yiyongera 33%, iva kuri kirometero 854.3 yabaruwe mu mwaka wa 2016-2017 igera kuri kirometero 1,139.62.

Muri iyo miyoboro yubatswe, ingana na kikometero 425.1 ifite ubushobozi buhambaye bwa 220kV mu gihe kilometero 714.5 zigikoresha imiyoboro isanzwe ya 110kV.

Mu miyoboro y’ubushobozi buhambaye bwa 220kV harimo uwa Mamba-Rwabusoro-Rilima-Gahanga ushamikiye ku mushinga wa Nyiramugengeri urimo gukorwa mu Karere ka Gisagara.

Hari undi wa Rusumo-Rilima-Bugesera-Shango ushamikiye ku mashanyarazi azabyazwa mu Rugomero rwa Rusumo.

Imiyoboro ya 110/30kV ikirimo kubakwa irimo uwa Mukungwa-Nyabihu uzongerera ubushobozi ikwizwa ry’amashanyarazi mu Karere ka Nyabihu no mu Majyaruguru cyane cyane agace kahariwe inganda muri Musanze, n’undi wa Butare-Gisagara uzahuza u Rwanda n’u Burundi.

Hari n’umuhigo wo gucanira imihanda yose y’Igihugu. Mu birometero 951 bigize imihanda y’Igihugu, ubu hasigaye ibilometero 631 bidacaniye. Ibirenga 300 byaracaniwe hari n’ibindi birimo gukorwa birimo iby’umuhanda wa Nyungwe ugiye kurangira, uva ku Kitabi winjira mu ishyamba rwagati ukanerekeza mu Murenge wa Bweyeye.

Indi mihanda izacanirwa irimo Kigali-Gatuna, Maranyundo-Kabaya-Mukamira, Kigali-Huye-Akanyaru, Kabaya-Mukamira, na Rusizi-Karongi-Rubavu.

Abanyarwanda barasabwa kugira uruhare mu kubungabunga ibikorwa remezo by’amashanyarazi bubakirwa mu gihugu hose.

Umuhanda Rusizi-Karongi-Rutsiro-Rubavu ugiye ugucanirwa

Uruganda rw’amashanyarazi aturuka kuri Nyiramugengeri rwa Gishoma rugiye kubona ururwunganira i Mamba mu Karere ka Gisagara aho iboneka ari nyinshi

Umukozi wa REG imbere y’ikoranabuhanga mu ikusanyirizo

Minisitiri w’Ibkorwa remezo yatashye ku mugaragaro Ikusanyirizo ry’amashanyarazi rya Gabiro

Ikusanyirizo rya’ashanyarazi mu Karere ka Rulindo

Imiyoboro y’amashanyarazi igenda yongererwa ubushobozi mu gihugu

Umwanditsi:

Ntawitonda Jean Claude

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