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Ibyo wamenya ku ndwara ya diyabete n’uko wayirinda

Yanditswe na Tumukunde Georgine

Ku ya 17-06-2019 saa 08:04:07
Dr. Kabakambira Jean Damascene umuganga ukorera mu Bitaro bya CHUK

Diyabete ni indwara iterwa no kugira isukari nyinshi ku buryo umubiri uba utakibasha kuyigenzura ngo igume ku gipimo gikwiye.

Muri rusange Diyabete irimo amoko abiri; hari ubwoko bwa mbere (Type1) n’ubwoko bwa 2 (Type2).

Mu rwego rwo kumenya byinshi kuri iyi ndwara, Imvaho Nshya yaganiriye na Dr. Kabakambira Jean Damascene, umuganga mu Bitaro bya Kaminuza bya Kigali (CHUK), unakuriye Ishami ry’ubuvuzi bw’indwara z’imbere mu mubiri, asobanura n’ibyafasha umuntu kuyirinda.

Diyabete yo mu bwoko bwa mbere

Dr. Kabakambira asobanura ko umuntu agira Diyabete yo mu bwoko bwa mbere igihe inyama yo mu nda yitwa urwagashya (Pancreas) ikora umusemburo witwa “Insuline/ Insulin” mu ndimi z’amahanga, ugomba kugabanya isukari mu mubiri ikajya ku gipimo gikwiye yananiwe kuwukora.

Urwagashya rushobora gukora umusemburo muke udahagije cyangwa na wo ntunaboneke.

Ati: “Ubundi nk’iyo umuntu ariye ibintu birimo isukari nyinshi (Fanta, keke,…), umubiri urabimenya ugakora uriya musemburo ukagabanya iyo sukari kugira ngo itaza guteza ibibazo mu mubiri, kuko iyo isukari ibaye nyinshi ihinduka uburozi.”

Akomeza avuga ko iyo “Insulin” ibaye nkeya mu mubiri cyangwa ikabura burundu, umuntu aba agomba kuyihabwa nk’umuti. Kuba mu buvuzi haravumbuwe uburyo bwo kongerera abantu uriya musemburo ni ibintu byagize akamaro cyane kuko bitarakorwa ngo wasangaga abantu bapfa cyane.

Indwara ya Diyabete yo mu bwoko bwa mbere ikunze kugaragara mu bana bafite imyaka 5, bakaba bashobora no kuyikurana.

Zimwe mu mpamvu zituma urwagashya runanirwa

Impamvu zishobora gutuma urwagashya runanirwa gukora umusemburo wa “insulin” harimo izijyanye n’impinduka mu mikorere y’umubiri; aho usanga umubiri ubwawo wirwanya, ugakora abasirikare (anticorps) bajya kwangiza zimwe mu ngingo, nyamara ahubwo wakagombye gukora abawurinda ibishobora kuwangiza. Hari n’igihe rero ukora ibyangiza urwagashya.

Dr. Kabakambira yagize ati: “Umubiri ubwabo ukora ibirwanya igice kimwe cy’urugingo, ugakora ibijya kwangiza urwagashya ntirubashe gukora wa musemburo. Ibyo biragora kubivura, ni ibintu byizana, bishobora kuba kuri iriya nyama, ariko bishobora no kuba ku zindi bikaba byateza izindi ndwara.”

Akomeza avuga ko ibindi bishobora kwangiza urwagashya ari indwara z’ubwandu (Virus).

Ati: “Indwara z’ubwandu hari igihe umuntu azirwara ntabimenye kubera ko akenshi umubiri uhita uzirwanya zigashira; nk’iyo umuntu akorora aba yarwaye indwara z’ubwandu […], hari virusi rero zishobora kugenda zikangiza ruriya rwagashya ntirubashe gukora insulin”.

Diyabete yo mu bwoko bwa kabiri

Dr. Kabakambira avuga ko Diyabete yo mu bwoko bwa kabiri ari yo igihangayikishije cyane kugeza ubu.

Kuri ubu bwoko ho umusemburo umuntu aba uwufite, urwagashya rukora neza ariko bitewe no kubyibuha bikabije no gukomeza kurya ibirimo isukari nyinshi, umubiri ntubashe kuwukoresha neza kubera ibinure byinshi cyane cyane ibyo mu nda; mu nyama zo kuri icyo gice cy’umubiri munsi y’uruhu no mu mara biba byabaye nk’urukuta.

Ati: “Ubundi isukari nta cyo itwaye ni yo iduha mbaraga, hari uburyo umubiri uyikoresha kugira ngo igire akamaro, ariko muri uko kuyitunganya hakenerwa umusemburo wa insulin, iyo rero uyu musemburo utabasha kwinjira muri bya binure, umubiri ukenera mwinshi, urwagashya rugakora mwinshi cyane kugira ngo ubashe gushyira ya sukari ku gipimo gikwiye.

Rurabikora mu minsi ya mbere n’iyo upimye ubona ko ari mwinshi mu mubiri, ariko rugera aho rukananirwa.”

Iyo urwagashya runaniwe rukora umusemburo mukeya, na wo ntukore neza kubera ibinure umuntu afite.

Ati: “Kugira ngo umuntu tumuvure dushobora gukoresha ibinini by’amoko menshi birimo ibikangura ibinure kugira ngo umusemburo ubashe kwinjira umubiri uwukoreshe, hari ibigabanya kurya ku buryo umuntu adakomeza kurya cyane yinjiza isukari nyinshi mu mubiri, hari n’ibyongerera ubushobozi insulin n’ibituma isukari isohoka mu mubiri binyuze mu nkari.”

Ibimenyetso bya Diyabete

Nkuko uyu muganga abisobanura, ibimenyetso by’iyi ndwara ntibipfa kugaragara aho usanga abenshi banayifite batabizi.

Yagize ati: “Iki ni ikibazo cyane, Diyabete umuntu ashobora kuyigira atabizi, nka 50% baba bayifite batabizi hari n’abagera kwa muganga baguye muri koma, isukari yabaye nyinshi cyane.”

Gusa ngo hari ushobora kugaragaza ibimenyetso bimwe na bimwe birimo kwihagarika kenshi cyane no kugira inyota nyinshi.

Ingaruka za Diyabete

Diyabete ni indwara ikomeye idakwiye gukerenswa kuko ishobora kuba intandaro y’izindi ndwara zikomeye, ni byiza ko uyirwaye akurikiza inama ahabwa n’abaganga zikamufasha kuramba.

Dr. Kabakambira avuga ko iyo isukari iri hejuru yangiza amaso igatera ubuhumyi, ngo hari bamwe usanga bacika amaguru, ariko iyo igumye ku gipimo kiri hasi nta bwo yangiza cyane.

Ati: “Diyabete iri mu mpamvu za mbere ziteza indwara z’umutima, iri mu mpamvu za mbere zitera ubuhumyi, n’ingingo zimwe na zimwe zikarwara zigacibwa.”

Akomeza avuga ko iri no mu bitera impyiko aho usanga uwazirwaye ajya ku mashini ziyungurura amaraso buri cyumweru kandi bitwara amafaranga menshi cyane; bihenda urwaye n’Igihugu muri rusange kikahatakariza amafaranga menshi mu kwita kuri abo barwayi.

Abayirwaye bitwaye neza bagera aho bagakurwa ku miti

Dr. Kabakambira avuga ko uwarwaye Diyabete ariko akitwara neza; akanoza imirire ikwiye uyirwaye, akagabanya ibiro, iyi ndwara iragabanuka cyane ku buryo agira ibipimo nk’iby’umuntu utayifite, ndetse abaganga bakanamuhagarikira imiti, gusa ahora yitwararika akurikiza inama z’abaganga haba mu mirire no kwirinda kongera ibiro byinshi kuko iyo atabikoze iragaruka.

Ikindi ni uko agira igihe ajya kwisuzumisha kugira ngo abaganga bakomeze kumukurikiranira hafi.

Ati: “Kugira ngo ubigereho nta bwo ari imiti yonyine urwaye akoresha harimo n’imirire, akareka isukari, akagabanya ibiro,…”

Uburyo bwo kwirinda Diyabete

Uretse Diyabete yo mu bwoko bwa mbere umuntu ashobora kugira bitewe n’imiterere y’umubiri we n’impamvu zavuzwe haruguru ziyitera zigoranye mu kuzivura, Diyabete yo mu bwoko bwa kabiri yakwirindwa, kandi bikagendana no kwirinda izindi ndwara zirimo iz’umuvuduko w’amaraso, iz’umutima, kuko abazigize baba bafite ibinure byinshi mu mubiri.

Ahandi Diyabete idashobora kwirindwa ni mu ruhererekane rw’umuryango kuko iyo hari umubyeyi wayirwaye umukomokaho, abafite ibyago byo kuyirwara ku gipimo cya 40%.

Dr. Kabakambira avuga ko kwirinda ari ukunoza imirire no kwirinda guhora wicaye hamwe.

Yagize ati: “Buriya dufite amahirwe yo kugira Igihugu k’imisozi igihumbi, buri wese afite amahirwe yo kuzamuka umusozi nibura buri munsi, abantu bafite ibyago ni aba twita abakire; umuntu arabyuka mu gitondo agahita yicara mu modoka, akajya ku kazi agahita yicara mu ntebe, akaza guhaguruka nimugoroba yicara muri ya modoka agataha, akarya agahita aryama. Ibi ni ibintu bibi cyane.”

Agira inama abantu kwirinda kwicara cyane dore ko ari ibintu bigenda bifata intera binahangayikishije cyane kurusha isukari abantu barya.

Ati: “Ubundi ntiwagombye kumara amasaha abiri utarahaguruka, wagombye guhaguruka ukarambura amaguru; ubishoboye ukaba wasiga imodoka ukajya ku kazi n’igare cyangwa n’amaguru niba atari kure cyane.”

Avuga ko iyo ukora ingendo nk’izo uba utwika ibinure bigenda byitsindagira mu mubiri n’isukari na yo irimo, bituma udakenera umusemburo mwinshi bityo urwagashya ruwukora ntirunanirwe.

Ashima gahunda Leta yashyizeho ya siporo rusange imaze kuba umuco, akaba ari ibintu bitanga ikizere mu gukumira indwara nyinshi zirimo na Diyabete.

Kunoza imirire

Mu kunoza imirire harimo no kugabanya isukari umuntu arya ndetse akaba yanayireka burundu. Ashobora kugenda ayigabanya buhoro buhoro kugira ngo wenda bitamugora guhita ayihagarikira icyarimwe.

Ku mpungenge z’uko kuyireka burundu bishobora kugira ingaruka ku mubiri, yagize ati: “Hari ibintu bimwe na bimwe tubuza abantu kubireka burundu; uretse umunyu burundu ntugire na muke urya wawubura umubiri ukagira ikibazo, ariko uretse isukari ntushobora kuyibura mu mubiri kubera ko utayishyize mu byo unywa n’ibyo urya. Ibintu byose turya biba birimo isukari nziza y’umwimerere kandi ihagije itari nk’iriya yakorewe mu nganda.”

Atanga ingero za bimwe mu biribwa isukari ibonekamo birimo umuceri, ibitoki, ibirayi, …

Kurya indyo yuzuye irimo ibirinda indwara, ibyubaka umubiri n’ibitera imbaraga, ni ingenzi bifasha umuntu kwirinda.

Avuga ko atari byiza kwarura ubwoko bwinshi bw’ibiribwa bitera imbaraga kuko biba ari ukongera isukari nyinshi mu mubiri. Isahane yakagombye kubonekaho nibura ubwoko bumwe bw’ibiribwa bitera imbaraga, imboga, ibirimo poroteyine nk’inyama, ibishyimbo. Imbuto na zo ntizigomba kubura mu mafunguro.

Ati: “Dufite amahirwe yo kuba tukibasha kubona imbuto n’imboka bikiri bishya; bikiva mu murima, si nko mu bindi bihugu biteye imbere cyane bibanza guca mu nganda bikazabageraho byarangiritse.”

Ku bijyanye n’amavuta avuga ko ari byiza kurya make, ukaba wanarya meza akomoka ku bimera, kuko iyo abaye menshi ari yo akurura bya binure binaniza umusemburo wa “insulin”.

Ikindi ni ukwirinda inzoga nyinshi kuko na yo yangiza umwijima bikaba byaganisha ku kurwara Diyabete.

Kwisuzumisha kenshi

Dr. Kabakambira Jean Damascene, umuganga muri CHUK, agira inama buri muntu wese kujya yisuzumisha kenshi akamenya uko ahagaze.

Avuga ko umugore utwite wese aba agomba gupimirwa isukari, n’undi wese ugiye kwivuza, yakagombye kwipimisha Diyabete dore ko n’ibizamini bidahenze.

Ikindi ukwipimisha ibiro akareba ko bijyanye n’uko areshya kugira ngo anagirwe inama n’abaganga z’uko yakwitwara mu gihe basanze harimo ikibazo.

Avuga ko Diyabete ari indwara ikomeje kwiyongera kuko nko muri Afurika mu mwaka wa 2040, ubushakashatsi bugaragaza ko ishobora kuzaba yiyongereye inshuro 156.

Mu Rwanda imibare ihari ni iy’ubushakashatsi bwakozwe mu mwaka wa 2012, igaragaza ko abayifite bagera kuri 5%. Ubu ni uburwayi bunagaragara cyane mu bihugu byo hanze nko muri Amerika aho usanga hafi umwe kuri 3 aba ayirwaye.

Muri Afurika, abagera kuri 70% bapfa bataragira imyaka 60 kubera Diyabete.

Dr. Kabakambira Jean Damascene umuganga ukorera mu Bitaro bya CHUK

Umwanditsi:

Tumukunde Georgine

3 Comments on “Ibyo wamenya ku ndwara ya diyabete n’uko wayirinda”

  1. Nibyiza cyane dushimiye uwateguye iyi nkuru hari icyo idufashije!
    Dushimiye kdi na Doctor Kabakambira

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