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Amateka y’Afurika agaragaza uburyo yigeze gukira

Yanditswe na Mugabo Lambert

Ku ya 08-07-2019 saa 07:09:04
Umugabane w'Afurika nubwo ari wo ukennye kurusha indi, mu mateka yawo wigeze gukira

Iyo hasubiwe mu mateka, bigaragara ko Afurika ngo yigeze gukira. Kugeza mu 1970, Afurika yari ifite 10% by’abaturage bakennye kurusha abandi ku Isi, iri ku rwego rumwe n’Asia mu bukungu. Nyamara ubu bukungu bwagiye bugabanuka bitewe na ruswa, intambara, imiyoborere mibi n’ihohotera, kugeza aho muri 2000 Afurika yari ifite 50% by’abantu bakennye kurusha abandi ku Isi.

Igihugu cya Misiri cyari kimwe mu bihugu bikomeye ku Isi kandi biteye imbere. Ibi byari ahagana mu myaka ya 3150 mbere ya Yesu/Yezu Kristu (BC). Iki gihugu cyari gifite politiki y’ubufatanye, aho inzego zose zakoranaga.

Icyambu cya Alexandria cyashinzwe na “Alexander the Great” mu 334 BC cyafatwaga nk’umutima w’ubucuruzi bwose bwakorerwaga mu nyanja ya Mediterane. Kugeza mu kinyejana cya 19, Misiri yari imwe mu bihugu bikize ku Isi.

Nyamara ariko si Misiri yonyine yari iteye imbere gusa kuko hari ibindi bihugu by’ubwami bwari bukomeye nk’Ubwami bwa Ghana (Ghana Empire), Nubia, Ethiopia na Mali byari bifite ubucuruzi bukomeye bwahuzaga ibihugu bya Mediterane n’ibyo mu Burasirazuba bwo hagati.

Abanyafurika kandi bubatse amateka ashingiye ku ibuye akomeye ku Isi cyane cyane mu kibaya cy’uruzi rwa Nili nk’imijyi ya Meroe, Napata na Axum yubatswe n’ubwami bwa kera bwa Nubian na Ethiopia.

Ibihugu byinshi na byo byo munsi y’Ubutayu bwa Sahara mbere y’uko abakoroni bahagera byari bifite umwihariko w’iterambere mu nyubako, ahakoreshwaga amatafari ahiye. Ibi byatumye Abanyaburayi bageze bwa mbere (explorers) muri aka gace k’Afurika bavuga ko kari agace gateye imbere.

Mu ntangiriro z’ikinyejana cya mbere nyuma ya Yesu/Yezu Kristu (AD), ubwami bwa Axumu (Axumite Kingdom) bwari bufite ubucuruzi bukomeye mu gace ko mu ihembe ry’Afurika, ahabarizwa ubu ibihugu bya Ethiopia na Eritrea. Axum yari ifite amato akomeye cyane, igakorana ubucuruzi na “Byzantine Empire”, u Buhinde ndetse rimwe na rimwe n’u Bushinwa.

Mu majyaruguru y’Afurika, mu kinyejana cya cumi, ubwo Abarabu badukanaga ingamiya, ni bwo hafunguwe bwa mbere ubucuruzi bwambukiranyaga Ubutayu bwa Sahara. Icyo gihe ubucuruzi bwa zahabu n’umunyu bwateje imbere cyane Iburengerazuba bwa Sahel harimo ubwami bwa Ghana (Kingdom of Ghana), Mali na Kanem-Bornu (Kanem-Bornu Empires).

Abarabu bakaba ngo baragize uruhare runini mu kubaka ubucuruzi bunyuze mu mazi mu bihugu by’Afurika y’Iburasirazuba, aho abacuruzi bakoreshaga ururimi rw’Igiswahili bahuriraga bagura amahembe y’inzovu n’abacakara banyuzaga mu nyanja y’u Buhinde. Mu karere k’ibiyaga bigari, ibihugu nk’u Rwanda, Burundi ndetse na Buganda, byari ibihugu bifite ubuyobozi bufite gahunda mu miyoborere ndetse n’ubuhinzi buteye imbere.

Mu kinyejana cya 15, Abanyapolutugali binjiye mu bucuruzi muri Afurika, maze batangira gukorera muri Guinea. Abandi Banyaburayi baboneyeho, maze biteza imbere cyane Afurika y’Iburengerazuba, aho ibihugu by’ubwami bwa Benin (Kingdom of Benin), Dahomey na “Ashanti Confederacy” ubukungu bwabyo bwahise buzamuka cyane n’ubwo hari ubucuruzi bwari bushingiye ku ijyanwa bunyago. Nyamara ibi byose byaje guhinduka ubwo ubukoroni bwatangiraga.

Ubukoroni bwangije ubukungu bw’Afurika

Mu bukoroni ni bwo ubukungu bw’Afurika bwatangiye gukendera kuko Abanyafurika ntibashoboraga kwisanzura. Bigeze mu myaka ya 1950, ni bwo ubukungu bw’Afurika bwongeye kuzamuka. Ibi ngo byatewe n’uko ubucuruzi mpuzamahanga bwiyongereye ndetse kurusha ubwa mbere y’ubukoroni.

Mu myaka ya 1960, nyuma y’ubukoroni, Abanyafurika bari bafite ikizere k’ejo hazaza mu bijyanye n’ubukungu. Mu myaka ya 1970, ubukungu bw’Isi muri rusange bwarahungabanye, maze habaho kwiyongera kw’ibiciro by’ibikomoka ku mavuta, ruswa iriyongera muri Afurika hatangira imvururu za politiki kuri uyu mugabane. Kuva muri iyi myaka ya 1970, ni bwo uyu mugabane w’Afurika ngo watangiye kuba uwa nyuma mu bukungu, uza inyuma y’indi migabane ku ku Isi.

N’ubwo Amerika y’Amajyepfo yatangiye kuzamuka n’Aziya y’Iburasirazuba, mu gihe Afurika yasubiraga inyuma. “World Economic Forum” yavuze ko mu 1970 umugabane w’Afurika wari ufite10% by’abakennye kurusha abandi ku Isi, nyamara bigeze mu 2000, Afurika yari ifite 50% by’abakennye kurusha abandi ku Isi! Hagati y’imyaka ya 1974 na 2000, umutungo Umunyafurika yinjizaga wagabanutseho amadolari y’Amerika 200! Mu mwaka wa 2009, 87% by’ubukungu bw’Afurika byari bishingiye ku bitumizwa hanze y’uyu mugabane.

Ibyasigaje Afurika inyuma ni byinshi

Imiyoborere mibi yakunze kugarukwaho mu byatumye Afurika idakomeza gutera imbere, aho ibihugu byinshi byakunze kuyoborwa n’abanyagitugu nyuma y’ubukoroni bagakurura bishyira. Ibi byagize ingaruka mbi kuko mu myaka ya za 1960 umugabane w’Afurika wanganyaga ubukungu n’uwa Aziya. Nyamara nyuma y’imyaka 10, Afurika yari imaze gusigara inyuma cyane.

Ruswa nayo yongereye ubusumbane mu Banyafurika, ari na byo byatumye abakire b’Abanyafurika batahashora imari. Kuva kandi ibihugu by’Afurika byabona ubwigenge, intambara na zo ntizatuje. Ibi na byo byongereye ubukene, kuko amafaranga menshi yashyirwaga mu gisirikare. Inkunga z’amahanga nazo zakunze kujya mu kugura ibikoresho bya gisirikare. Ihohotera naryo ryariyongereye, rijyana n’intambara zo mu karere k’ibiyaga bigari.

Kwangiza ibidukikije na byo bigira ingaruka ku bukungu bw’Afurika, aho amashyamba yatsembwe, bigatuma ihindagurika ry’ibihe naryo rigira ingaruka ku buhinzi bwari busanzwe butunze Abanyafurika benshi. Kuva aho byinshi mu bihugu by’Afurika biboneye ubwigenge, abayobozi babyo bakunze kwikubira inkunga z’amahanga. Izi nkunga zari nyinshi mu gihe k’intambara y’ubutita (Cold War), nyamara zikajya mu mifuka y’abayobozi.

Kwishyura imyenda Afurika iba ifitiye amabanki y’i Burayi nabyo bidindiza ubukungu bwayo, dore ko amafaranga uyu mugabane wishyura muri izo banki buri mwaka aba ari akayabo. Iyi myenda ahanini usanga iba yarafashwe mu gihe cyashize, akanyerezwa n’abategetsi babi Afurika yakunze kugira.

Kuva 2000 hari ikigenda gihinduka

Kuva muri 2000, Afurika yongereye ku buryo bwo hejuru ubucuruzi hagati yayo n’igihugu cy’u Bushinwa, aho kugeza muri 2008 ubwo bucuruzi bwari bumaze kwikuba inshuro 10. Ubu bucuruzi bukaba muri 2008 gusa bwararenze miriyari 100 z’amadolari.

Ibi ahanini ngo biranaterwa n’uko ubukungu bw’ibihugu bituwe cyane ku Isi nk’u Bushinwa n’u Buhinde burimo kuzamuka cyane, mu gihe ibihugu by’Amerika y’Amajyepfo mu minsi ishize nabyo byagize igihe cyo kugira umuvuduko mu iterambere.

Afurika kandi gushyira hamwe kwayo kuri ubu, biratanga ikizere cyo kwishakamo ibisubizo. Ishyirwaho ry’isoko rimwe rihuriweho muri Afurika, ndetse n’amavugurura y’Umuryango w’Ubumwe bw’Afurika ayobowe na Perezida Paul Kagame, agamije kwishakamo ibisubizo, byose byerekana ko hari impinduka zigenda zigaragaza kuri uyu mugabane.

Umugabane w’Afurika nubwo ari wo ukennye kurusha indi, mu mateka yawo wigeze gukira

Umwanditsi:

Mugabo Lambert

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