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Amateka n’inkomoko bya Noheli ku isi

Yanditswe na admin

Ku ya 27-12-2017 saa 12:37:34
Uyu mutako uzwi nk'igiti cya Noheli, uwusanga henshi mu nzu, aho bacururiza n'ahandi

Ijambo Noheli rikomoka ku ijambo ry’Igifaransa “Noël” naryo ryakomotse mu Kilatini “Natalis” bivuze “amavuka”. Mu Cyongereza Noheli ikaba “Christmas”.

Mu Cyongereza, iri jambo ni inyunge (compound) aho rigizwe na “Christ” na “Mass”, rikomoka ku cyongereza cya kera “Christemass” nabyo biva ku cya kera cyane “Cristes mæsse” ryakoreshejwe bwa mbere mu 1038, naryo rikaba rikomoka mu Kigereki n’Ikilatini, aho “Cristes” bikomoka ku Kigereki “Christos” na”mæsse” rikava ku Lilatini “missa”.

Noheli, abantu benshi bakunze kuyita “Xmas” mu Cyongereza. Impamvu ni uko inyuguti “X” (chi) ari yo itangira ijambo ry’Icyongereza “Christ” (Kristu), bityo iyi nyuguti “X” igakoreshwa nk’impine y’ijambo Kristu mu Kiromani, aho ryatangiye gukoreshwa muri ubwo buryo hagati mu kinyejana cya 16. Kuva icyo gihe, “Xmas” yatangiye gukoreshwa nk’impine ya “Christimas”.

Noheli ni umunsi mukuru w’Abakiristu wizihizwa buri mwaka, ahaba hibukwa ivuka rya Yesu/Yezu Kristu wavukiye i Nazareti. Uyu munsi wa Noheli ukaba wizihizwa buri tariki ya 25 Ukuboza. Noheli yizihizwa nk’umunsi mukuru mu bihugu byose byo ku isi ndetse no mu bihugu bidatuwe n’Abakiristu. Mu bihugu bidatuwe n’Abakristu, uyu munsi wahajyanywe n’Abakoloni ubwo bakolonizaga ibyo bihugu nko muri Hong Kong.

Mu bihugu bindi bigira umubare muto w’Abakristu, naho ntibibuza ko munsi wa Noheli uba ari konji. Igihugu nka Korea, ahagaragara umubare muke w’Abakristu, usanga bizihiza Noheli ku buryo budasanzwe, kuko mu gihugu hose uhasanga imitako y’uyu munsi. Ibihugu bitizihiza umunsi wa Noheli ni nk’igihugu cy’Ubushinwa (havuyemo Hong Kong na Macao), u Buyapani, Saudi Arabia, Algeria, Thailand, Nepal, Iran, Turikiya na Korea ya ruguru.

Ese koko Yesu yavutse kuri 25 Ukuboza?

Mu binyejena byinshi bishize, abanditsi b’Abakristu bagiye bagaruka cyane kuri Noheli nk’itariki y’amavuka ya Yesu Kristu. Mu kinyejena cya 18, abantu bamwe batangiye gutanga ibindi bitekerezo byabo ku bijyanye na Noheli.

Isaac Newton yavuze ko umunsi wa Noheli watoranyijwe hagendewe ku bihe by’ubukonje bukabije ubwo izuba riba rigaragara mu gihe cya mu gitondo (winter solstice) rikarasa rishinze, igihe Abaromani bitaga “Bruma” kizihizwaga ku wa 25 Ukuboza.

Mu 1743, Umudage w’Umuprotestani Paul Ernst Jablonski yavuze ko Noheli yashyizwe ku itariki 25 Ukuboza hagendewe kuyijyanisha n’umunsi w’izuba ku Baromani “Dies Natalis Solis Invicti” kandi ngo wari umunsi wa kiriziya. Mu 1889, Louis Duchesne yavuze ko umunsi wizihizwaho Noheli watoranyijwe habazwe amezi ikenda nyuma y’ivuka rya Yesu.

Ibikunze kuranga Noheli

Ahantu henshi uhasanga imitako ku munsi wa Noheli, ngo bikaba ari ibintu byo kuva kera mu mateka y’uyu munsi. Amabara akunda kwitabwaho abantu bataka kuri uyu munsi, ni ibara ry’umutuku n’icyatsi kibisi. Andi mabara abantu bajya bakoresha ni umweru, “silver” n’ibara rijya gusa na zahabu.

Umutuku ngo ugaragaza amaraso ya Yesu yamenekeye ku musaraba, icyatsi kibisi cyo kivuga ubuzima bw’iteka. Igiti cya Noheli (Christmas tree) abantu bakunze gukoresha bataka kuri uyu munsi, benshi bagifata nk’ihinduka ry’abapagani. Mu cyongereza, “Christmas tree” yatangiye gukoreshwa mu 1835 rivuye mu Kidage.

Igiti cya Noheli cyaba gifite inkomoko mu Budage mu kinyejana cya 18, ariko benshi bavuga ko Martin Luther ari we watangiye kugikoresha mu kinyejana cya 16. Mu Bwongereza, uyu muco w’igiti cya Noheli wahagejejwe bwa mbere n’umugabekazi “Queen Charlotte” umugore wa George III, ariko biza gushyirwamo ingufu n’igikomangoma “Prince Albert” mu gihe k’ingoma ya “Queen Victoria”. Mu 1841, igiti cya Noheli cyari kimaze gukwirakwira mu Bwongereza hose. Mu 1841, abaturage ba Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Amerika nabo batangiye gukoresha icyo giti cya Noheli.

Habaho kandi indirimbo za Noheli zizwi kuba zaratangiye mu kinyejana cya kane i Roma. Indirimbo nk’izo harimo iy’Ikilatini izwi ku izina rya “Veni redemptor gentium” yanditswe n’Ambrose, umukuru w’Abasenyeri (Archbishop) wa Milan. Indi ni iyitwa “Corde natus ex Parentis” yahimbwe n’umuhanzi w’Umwesipanyoro Prudentius muri 413 ubu iracyaririmbwa mu nsengero nyinshi kugeza uyu munsi.

Impano zitangwa kuri uyu munsi

Mu cyumweru kandi kibanziriza Noheli, habaho gutanga amakarita yo kwifuriza inshuti n’imiryango Noheli nziza. Kuri aya makarita haba handitseho ngo “Nkwifurije Noheli nziza n’umwaka mushya muhire”.

Ubucuruzi bwa mbere bw’amakarita nk’aya bwatangijwe na Sir Henry Cole i London mu Bwongereza mu 1843. Aya makarita aho ari aba ariho ibigaragaza ivuka rya Yesu Kristu, nk’inyenyeri y’i Betelehemu (Star of Bethlehem), cyangwa se inuma y’umweru igaragaza umwuka wera n’amahoro ku isi.

Kuri Noheli kandi hatangwa impano zinyuranye, bikaba bigaragara ko uyu munsi wa Noheli ari wo abantu batangaho impano nyinshi cyane. Gutanga impano i Roma byarakorwaga cyane mu bihe bya kera ku munsi wa Saturnalia, umunsi wizihizwaga mu mpera z’Ukuboza, umunsi usa naho wagize uruhare runini mu gushimangira uwa Noheli.

Ntibaremeranywa ku itariki Yesu yavutseho

Nyamara ariko, itariki y’ivuka rya Yesu ntizwi. Isezerano rishya muri Bibiliya, nta bwo ryerekana itariki yavukiyeho. Ahagana muri 200 nyuma ya Yesu, Clement of Alexandria yanditse ko mu gihugu cya Misiri hari abizihizaga ivuka rya Yesu ku wa 25 z’ukwezi Pashons. Iyi tariki ngo ijyanye n’iya 20 Gicurasi.

Tertullian (220 nyuma ya Yesu) mu nyandiko ye nta bwo yigeze agaragaza ko Noheli ari umunsi ukomeye wizihizwaga na Kiriziya Gaturika muri Afurika. Nyamara ariko, mu gitabo “Chronographai” cyasohotse muri 221, Sextus Julius Africanus yavuze ko Yesu yavutse ku wa 25 Ukuboza. Gusa, “De Pascha Computus”, ingengabihe y’iminsi mikuru yashyizwe ahagaragara muri 243, yatangaga itariki ya 28 Werurwe ko ari yo y’amavuko ya Yesu Kristu.

Muri 245, umuteworugiya (theologian) Origen of Alexandria yagize ati “Usanga abanyabyaha gusa (Pharaoh na Herod) ari bo bonyine bizihiza igihe bavukiye”. Muri 303, umwanditsi w’Umukristu Arnobius yarwanyije cyane igitekerezo cyo kwizihiza ivuka ry’imana (cyangwa se ibigirwamana), ngo bikaba bigaragaza ko Noheli muri iki gihe yari itaratangira kwizihizwa.

Uko biri kose, n’ubwo abantu batahuriza ku itariki Yesu Kristu yavukiyeho, ikizwi k’ingenzi ni uko Noheli yibutsa Abakiristu ivuka rya Kristu.

MUGABO LAMBERT

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2 Comments on “Amateka n’inkomoko bya Noheli ku isi”

  1. Ndibaza eseeburiya ntitwaba tubeshyera imana ntizabituryoza kwizihiza iminsi it’s uwo yesu yavutseho nimba ataravutse kuriyi tariki ntitwanakozeho ibirori byo kwizihiza ibitarabaye kuri uyu munsi

    Ikindi nimba uyumunsi waruwizuba ntampampu yo yo kuwitirira umwana wimana kko nugutandukira pe!

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