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Tunoze ubuhinzi: Menya uburyo bwo kurwanya indwara zifata amashu  

Yanditswe na Tumukunde Georgine

Ku ya 09-10-2019 saa 10:20:12
Hari ibyo umuhinzi yakora agakumira uburwayi bufata amashu

Ubuhinzi bw’amashu iyo bukozwe neza butanga umusaruro utubutse, kubwitaho ni ugutegura imbuto nziza, gutegura umurima no kurera ingemwe neza, ugakurikiza n’andi mabwiriza ajyanye no gusasira, kuvomerera, kugemura ingemwe igihe wakoresheje ubuhumbikiro, kubagara, n’ibindi.

Ubutaka buberanye n’amashu ni ubuvanze; bw’umucanga n’ibumba, bwiza, burebure kandi bufite ifumbire nyinshi. Ni yo mpamvu ubutaka busharira cyane atari bwiza kuri icyo gihingwa, ariko ibishanga bikamuye neza kandi byabonye ishwagara biberanye n’amashu.

Amashu agabanyijemo amatsinda atatu akunzwe mu Rwanda: amashu asanzwe (Brassica oleracea capitata), uyabwirwa n’uko agenda yibumba uko akura, amashu y’i Buruseli (ishu mbirigi) ari yo (Brassica oleracea gemmifera), uyabwirwa n’udushu duto tumera ku giti k’ishu.

Utwo dushu duto na two tugenda twifunga kandi ni na two turibwa, hakaba hari n’ amashu basarura indabo (choux-fleurs) ariyo Brassica oleracea botrytis ;  ku mutwe w’ishu iyo ryeze, indabyo z’umweru ziba zitsitse hamwe ari na zo basarura bakarya.

Indwara zishobora gufata amashu n’uko bazirwanya 

Hari ubwoko bw’indwara n’udukoko dufata amashu. Izo ndwara iyo zagaragaye hari uburyo umuhinzi azirwanya kugira ngo zitangiza umusaruro.

Ibibyimba ku mizi  

Iyi ndwara iterwa n’ agahumyo (Plasmodisphora brassicae). Ifata imizi, ikarangwa n’uko  imizi ita ireme ikamera nk’ibijumba, irabora ikanuka cyane kandi amashu ntakura neza ndetse iyo hashyushye ararabirana agasa n’ayanambye.

Kurwanya iyi ndwara bikorwa umuhinzi arandura amashu arwaye akanayatwikirira mu mwobo. Mu gihe k’itera ni byiza gukoresha ingemwe zitarwaye. Iyo ndwara yageze mu mirima bisaba kumara imyaka 5 hadasubijwemo  amashu.

Uburyo bwo kuyikingira ni ukuvanga itaka ry’ubuhumbikiro n’amatotoro y’inkoko n’ivu ry’ibiti mbere yo guhumbika imbuto z’amashu, gutera imiti yica indwara iterwa n’uduhumyo nka “Oxychlorure de cuivre”g 50/10 l z’amazi/ari 1, “Dacobre” gr 140/l 10 z’amazi/ari 1 cyangwa 1,5.

Ikungeri 

Indwara y’ikungeri  iterwa n’igisavumvuri cy’umukara,  ifata amababi, ikarangwa n’uko ku mababi y’ingemwe haza utwenge twinshi.

Kuyirwanya ni  ugukurikiza uburyo bwiza bwo guhinga kugira ngo amashu akure vuba, gutera inyanya cyangwa se urwuya (menthe) hagati y’amashu kuko impumuro y’ibyo bihingwa yirukana ikungeri, kuvomerera kenshi ingemwe z’amashu mu mpeshyi kugira ngo amababi ndetse n’ubutaka bituma, gukoresha imiti irwanya udusimba nka “Sumithion” 50%, ml 10/l 10 z’amazi/ari 1, Deltamethrine ml 30/l 10 z’amazi/ari 1

Isazi y’amashu 

Isazi y’amashu  ifata umunigo, agati n’imizi, isazi itera amagi hasi ku ngemwe. Inyo zinjira mu munigo zigacukura utuyira mu giti cy’amashu. Iyo isazi ari nyinshi, imizi yose irononekara, amababi akarabirana maze akuma.

Uko iyi sazi  bayirwanya ni ugukurikiza uburyo bwiza bwo guhinga kugira ngo ingemwe zikure vuba, gutera imiti yica udukoko hakoreshwa iriya irwanya  ikungeri.

Amababi apfumaguye

Iyi ndwara iterwa n’igisangungu k’icyatsi kibisi kibyarwa n’ibinyugunyugu byitwa  Plutella Xystella, Hellula undalis, Spodoptera exempta, Trichoplusia. Ifata amababi, ikarangwa n’udusangungu tw’icyatsi kibisi keruruka turya amababi y’ishu tugasigamo imyobo minini.

Kuyirwanya ni ugutera inyanya nkeya hagati y’amashu kuko impumuro yazo ituma udusimba  duhunga, gutera imiti yica udukoko.

Inzoka z’ibimera

Inzoka z’ibimera (nématodes) ifata imizi, irangwa n’uko ku mizi y’ishu hameraho utuzi twinshi duto turiho amapfundo.  Mu murima indwara yajemo, bamara imyaka 3 cyangwa 4 batarasubizamo  amashu, bagatera  nyiramunukanabi bakazikikiza umurima w’amashu no mu murima  hagati.

Ni byiza kandi ko umuhinzi yubahiriza ibihe by’ihinga kuko iyo bitubahirijwe bishobora gutuma yera nabi kandi akibasirwa n’uburwayi. Ni ngombwa guteganya iminsi 25 kugera kuri 30 amashu amara mu buhumbikiro kugira ngo umenye igihe uzaterera ingemwe mu murima. Kugemura ingemwe mu mirima bikorwa mu gihe k’imvura (Nzeri na Werurwe) iyo zihingwa imusozi. Mu kabande aho bashobora kuvomera, amashu ashobora guhingwa  mu bihe by’ihinga byose uko ari bitatu. Imvaho Nshya ibikesha Minisiteri y’Ubuhinzi n’Ubworozi.

Umwanditsi:

Tumukunde Georgine

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