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Impamvu igitabo cy’amategeko ahana ibyaha kirimo kuvugururwa

Yanditswe na IMVAHO NSHYA

Kuya 2017-12-04 10:11:51

 
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HABIMANA Augustin

Mu Rwanda hatangiye ivugururwa ry’igitabo cy’amategeko ahana ibyaha ahanini hagamijwe kurihuza n’ibiteganywa n’Itegeko Nshinga rya Repubulika y’u Rwanda ryo mu 2003 ryavuguruwe mu 2015, koroshya imikoreshereze yaryo, guteganya ibyaha n’ibihano bijyanye na politiki n’ikerekezo u Rwanda rwihaye hakanateganywa uburyo ibyaha bishya bigenda bivuka bishobora guhanwa.

Igitabo cy’amategeko ahana ibyaha (penal code/code pénal) ni igitabo kiba gikubiyemo amahame rusange agenga ibyaha n’ibihano n’urutonde rw’ibyaha bishobora gukorwa kandi kikagena ibihano byabyo.

Mu Rwanda muri iki gihe, harimo gukorwa ivugururwa ry’Itegeko Ngenga n° 01/2012/OL ryo ku wa 02/05/2012 rishyiraho igitabo cy’amategeko ahana ibyaha, aho ubu umushinga w’itegeko riteganya ibyaha n’ibihano muri rusange urimo kugibwaho impaka no gusesengurwa mu Nteko Ishinga Amategeko/Umutwe w’Abadepite.

Iryo vugurura ry’igitabo cy’amategeko ahana ahanini rishingiye kuri politiki na gahunda igihugu cyacu kigenderaho, nk’aho mu kerekezo 2020, gahunda y’Imbaturabukungu ya kabiri (EDPRS II), no mu rwego rwo gushyira mu bikorwa intego zigamije iterambere rirambye (SDGs), usanga hose u Rwanda rwariyemeje kuba Igihugu kirangwa n’ihame ryo kugendera ku mategeko no kubahiriza uburenganzira bwa Muntu, rushyigikira kandi rurengera abaturage bose nta vangura iryo ari ryo ryose, mu rwego rwo guharanira ubumwe, imibereho myiza n’umutekano by’abaturage, kurwanya ruswa n’akarengane, gutoza abaturage kwirinda ibyaha no guteza imbere inzego zishinzwe gukumira ibyaha, kurandura umuco wo kudahana n’ibindi.

Itegeko Ngenga n° 01/2012/OL ryo ku wa 02/05/2012 rishyiraho igitabo cy’amategeko ahana ryashyizweho risimbura itegeko-teka n°21/77 ryo ku wa 18 Kamena 1977 ryerekeye Igitabo cy’Amategeko ahana ryemejwe n’itegeko n° 01/1982 ryo ku wa 26 Mutarama 1982.

Muri 2010 ubwo havugururwaga Itegeko Nshinga ryo mu 2003, ingingo yaryo ya 20 yateganyaga ko “ibyaha n’ibihano bijyanye na byo biteganywa n’Itegeko Ngenga”, ibyo byatumye ibyaha byose n’ibihano biteganywa mu itegeko ngenga rishyiraho igitabo cy’amategeko ahana, bivuze ko hari amategeko mashya yashyirwagaho bikagaragara ko akwiye kuba ateganya ibyaha n’ibihano ariko ntibishoboke kubera ko yabaga ari amategeko asanzwe.

Mu gukemura icyo kibazo mu ivugurura ry’Itegeko Nshinga ryo mu 2003 nk’uko ryavuguruwe mu mwaka wa 2015, hateganywa ko “ibyaha n’ibihano bijyanye na byo biteganywa n’amategeko”. Bityo, bikaba bitakiri ngombwa ko byanze bikunze ibyaha n’ibihano bigomba guteganywa n’itegeko ngenga.

Ni muri urwo rwego muri uyu mushinga w’itegeko urimo gusuzumwa ibyaha n’ibihano byari byarakuwe mu mategeko yihariye byasubijwemo, ibindi bishyirwa mu mategeko mashya nk’itegeko rihana icuruzwa ry’abantu, kugira ngo bizorohere abayakoresha.

Muri iryo vugururwa ry’igitabo cy’amategeko ahana ibyavuguruwe mu bijyanye n’ireme ry’itegeko ryari risanzweho, hari iby’ingenzi byitaweho:

Gukumira ibyaha bigenda bifata intera ndende mu ikorwa ryabyo nk’ibijyanye n’icuruzwa ry’abantu, ibyaha bikorerwa abana, ihohoterwa rishingiye ku gitsina, icuruzwa n’ikoreshwa ry’ibiyobyabwenge, ruswa n’ibyaha bifitanye isano na yo, ibyaha bikorwa mu rwego rw’ubukungu, ibyaha bikorerwa umutungo w’igihugu, ibyaha bikoranwa ikoranabuhanga n’ibindi.

Guhuza igihano n’uburemere bw’icyaha, kugira ngo ibyaha bidafite ubukana biteganyirizwe ibihano byoroheje naho ibyaha biremereye bihanishwe ibihano biremereye.

Guca intege abashaka gukora ibyaha, aho ku byaha bimwe igihano cy’igifungo cyongerewe ku byaha bimwe na bimwe, birimo: gukubita cyangwa gukomeretsa ku bushake umwana cyangwa umuntu udashoboye kwitabara, iyicarubozo, kwanduza undi indwara n’ibindi.

Kubuza uwakoze icyaha kongera kugikora: aho biboneka ko umuntu aramutse arekuwe yakongera gukora ibyaha, hateganyijwe igifungo mu rwego rwo kurinda sosiyete uwo muntu no kurinda umutekano.

Guha amahirwe uwakoze icyaha kugira ngo yongere abane n’abandi, aho ibyaha bidafite ubukana bukabije byongereweho igihano cy’imirimo y’inyungu rusange.

Ibikorwa itegeko ngenga ryo mu 2012 rishyiraho igitabo cy’amategeko ahana ritahanaga kandi mu by’ukuri ari ibyaha, aha harimo ibyaha bifitanye isano n’ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside y’indi jenoside yemewe n’Umuryango w’Abibumbye, kwanduza undi indwara, no kurega undi umubeshyera.

Kugabanya intera nini yari hagati y’igihano gito n’igihano kinini, kuko byatumaga abakoze icyaha kimwe bashobora guhanwa ku buryo butandukanye, bityo bikaba byatuma ubutabera budatangwa ku buryo bungana ku bantu bose.

Kuba itegeko ngenga ryo mu 2012 ryarateganyaga igihano k’igifungo cya burundu cy’umwihariko, mu gihe u Rwanda ruri mu kerekezo cyo kubahiriza uburenganzira bwa muntu ku buryo busesuye igihano cya burundu cy’umwihariko harasabwa ko cyakurwa mu byaha mpanabyaha n’ibindi.

Ibyo bitekerezo byose biracyaganirwaho ingingo ku yindi hagamijwe kujya inama ku kibereye Abanyarwanda n’umuryango nyarwanda.

Impamvu amategeko avugururwa ni ukugira ngo anogere abayakoresha n’abo areba, akaba ari n’uburenganzira bwa buri wese gutanga ibitekerezo ku mushinga w’itegeko mu gihe ugisuzumwa, cyane cyane ko imirimo y’Inteko Ishinga Amategeko ibera mu ruhame. Nutashobora kugera aho basuzumira imishinga y’amategeko yakwandika ibitekerezo bye kandi byitabwaho.

Ibikubiye muri iyi nyandiko byanditswe n’umukozi mu Nteko Ishinga Amategeko/Umutwe w’Abadepite

HABIMANA AUGUSTIN

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