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Itegurwa rya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi: Ibikorwa byaranze amatariki ya 16-22 Gashyantare 1991-1994

Yanditswe na Imvaho Nshya

Ku ya 15-02-2020 saa 19:03:56
Interahamwe zari zaratojwe kwica, maze zigira uruhare ntagereranywa muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994

Komisiyo y’Igihugu yo kurwanya Jenoside ikomeje kubagezaho bimwe mu bikorwa byaranze umugambi w’itegurwa n’ishyirwa mu bikorwa rya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994. Ibikorwa bikurikira ni ibyabaye ku matariki ya 16-22, 1991-1994.

Leta y’u Rwanda yateguraga intambara mu gihe ibiganiro by’amahoro byari birimbanyije Arusha

Mu gihe ibiganiro by’Amahoro byasaga n’aho bigenda neza, Leta y’u Rwanda yo yiteguraga intambara.  Ni muri urwo rwego tariki ya 19 Gashyantare 1992, Perezida Habyarimana yagiye mu Misiri asaba ko u Rwanda rwagurayo intwaro kandi arabyemererwa. Muri Werurwe 1992, Minisiteri y’Ingabo yaguze mu Misiri intwaro zifite agaciro ka miriyoni esheshatu z’amadorari.  Muri izo ntwaro harimo imbunda, ibisasu byo mu bwoko bwa ‘roquettes’ na za grenade zahawe abaturage.

Ibi birerekana ko n’ubwo Habyarimana yajyaga mu biganiro by’amahoro atari afite gahunda yo kubahiriza ibyari kuyavamo, ko ahubwo yiteguraga gukomeza intambara no gukomeza gutegura Jenoside. Ni na byo yivugiye muri mitingi yakoreye mu Ruhengeri ku wa 17/11/1992 atangariza abarwanashyaka ba MRND ko atemera ibiva mu mishyikirano y’amahoro, abyita ko ari ibipapuro, ko amahoro atava mu bipapuro.

Yongeyeho ko kuri we igihe nikigera azakora ku Nterahamwe ze, yazambitse, maze bakamanuka mu giturage. Nta kindi yavugaga uretse guha interahamwe ze uburenganzira bwo kujya hose mu gihugu kurimbura Abatutsi no kwica Abahutu bari mu mashyaka atarashakaga gukora Jenoside.

CDR yakwirakwije ibinyoma bihimba ubwicanyi butabayeho bwitirirwa FPR bigamije ubukangurambaga bwa Jenoside

Ku itariki ya 19 Gashyantare 1993, ishyaka rya CDR ryasohoye itangazo ryuzuyemo ibinyoma, ritanga imibare ryavugaga ko ari iy’Abahutu bishwe na FPR, 800 mu mujyi wa Ruhengeri, 200 muri Komini Kidaho, 600 muri Komine Nkumba, 500 muri Komini Kinigi na 800 muri Komini Nyarutovu. CDR ikomeza ibeshya ko muri Komini imwe ya Byumba yitwaga Kinyami naho ngo hishwe abandi 800.

CDR imaze gutanga iyo mibare idafite ishingiro, yasoje isaba Abahutu bose bo mu mashyaka yose ko bagomba guhaguruka bakirwanaho, byavugaga kwica Abatutsi. Aha biragaragara ko CDR yatanze iyi mibare mihimbano mu rwego rwo guhamagarira abaturage kwanga FPR n’Abatutsi, no gushishikariza Abahutu gukora Jenoside.

Tariki ya 20 Gashyantare 1993, CDR yakomeje uwo mugambi w’ubukangurambaga bwo gukora Jenoside isohora irindi tangazo ryereka Abahutu  bakomoka i Cyangugu no ku Kibuye ko na bo bagiye guterwa n’Inkotanyi, ibasaba kwirwanaho, bikaba byaravugaga kwica Abatutsi. Izo mpuruza za CDR zakurikiwe n’ubwicanyi bukomeye muri utwo duce, hibasirwa Abatutsi.

 Igisirikare cy’u Rwanda cyahamagariye ingabo zacyo kwitegura gukora Jenoside

 Ku itariki ya 17 Gashyantare 1994 inyandiko ifite  n° 17 yo muri serivisi z’ubutasi z’u Bubiligi itanga amakuru agaragaza ko  umugaba mukuru w’Ingabo z’u Rwanda, Gen. Déogratias Nsabimana, yari yarateguje imitwe y’ingabo harimo n’abajandarume, kwitegura igikorwa gikomeye. Gen. Nsabimana, muri icyo gihe yanasabye ko abasirikare n’abajandarume bagiye mu mpushya cyangwa mu kiruhuko basubira mu bigo byabo bihuse mu buryo bwose bushoboka.

Yasabye kandi ko hakorwa igenzurwa mu bubiko bw’intwaro, amasasu n’ibindi bikoresho by’intambara ndetse anasaba ko hakwinjizwa abandi basirikare bashya mu rwego rwo kongera umubare w’ingabo. Izi ngamba zose zafashwe amezi abiri mbere ya Jenoside zari zigamije gutegura Jenoside, abazayikora n’ibikoresho byagombaga kwifashishwa igihe amabwiriza yo kuyitangira azatangirwa.

Perezida Habyarimana yamenyesheje umugambi wa Jenoside abayobozi ba jandarumori 

Tariki ya 17 Gashyantare 1994, Perezida Habyarimana yayoboye inama y’abayobozi bakuru ba jandarumori y’igihugu yayoborwaga na Gen. Augustin Ndindiriyimana. Bimwe mu byayivugiwemo, harimo inzitizi ku gushyiraho inzego z’inzibacyuho no kuba intambara ishobora kubura.

Habyarimana yabibamenyesheje muri aya magambo: « FPR iramutse itangiye intambara, dufite umushinga wo kwita ku byitso byayo».  Aya magambo ya Habyarimana yarumvikanaga, kwica Abatutsi byafatwaga nk’umushinga wa Leta, ibyo bikaba byarahaga abajandarume bari bashinzwe umutekano kwirara mu Batutsi igihe ubutegetsi bwari kubabwira kubutangira.

 Umugaba mukuru w’ingabo z’u Rwanda, Gen. Déogratias Nsabimana, yeretse mubyara we Jean Birara urutonde rw’abantu bagomba kwicwa

Tariki ya 20 Gashyantare 1994, mu gihe hagaragaraga ibikorwa binyuranye bitegura Jenoside, umugaba mukuru w’ingabo z’u Rwanda, Gen. Nsabimana Déogratias, yeretse mubyara we Birara Jean Berchmas wahoze ari Guverineri wa Banki Nkuru y’u Rwanda, urutonde rugaragaza amazina y’abantu 1500 bagombaga kwicwa.

Mu kinyamakuru cyo mu Bubiligi cyo ku wa 24 Gicurasi 1994, Birara ahamya ko aya makuru yayagejeje ku ntumwa z’ibihugu by’i Burayi zari mu Rwanda, by’umwihariko Ambasade y’u Bubiligi. Ku ruhande rwe, uwari Ambasaderi w’u Bubiligi mu Rwanda icyo gihe, Johann SWINNEN, yemeje aya makuru ubwo yabazwaga na Sena y’u Bubiligi mu 1997.

Agenda ya Col. Bagosora yo muri 1994 yagaragaje imyiteguro ya Jenoside

Ku wa 21 Gashyantare 1994, Bagosora yanditse muri ajenda ye (yabonywe mu ishyinguranyandiko rye i Kigali) ubwihutirwe bwo « gukora urutonde rw’abasezerewe mu ngabo » bagombaga gusubizwa mu gisirikare. Muri icyo gihe kandi raporo za MINUAR zagaragazaga ko hari umugambi wateguwe n’agatsiko k’abicanyi ugamije gutsemba Abatutsi no kwica abatavuga rumwe na Leta bakomeye.

Hirya no hino mu gihugu havugwaga ubwicanyi bwibasiraga Abatutsi. Ubwo bwicanyi bwakorwaga n’abasirikare, Interahamwe za MRND hamwe n’Impuzamugambi za CDR. Tariki ya 19/2/1993 abasirikare b’u Rwanda bishe abantu 5 muri Komini Tumba. Hagati y’itariki ya 20 na 22/2/1994 habaye imvururu zikomeye muri Kigali zikorwa n’Interahamwe na CDR, ubwicanyi burakomeza muri Gisenyi, Ruhengeri, Kibuye na Byumba, hicwa umubare munini w’Abatutsi.

 Ingabo z’u Bufaransa zoherejwe muri Operation Chimère zahawe ububasha budasanzwe harimo ubwo gusaba ibyangombwa kuri za bariyeri

Nyuma y’itariki ya 8/2/1993, byaragaragaye ko FPR-Inkotanyi irusha Ingabo z’u Rwanda ingufu za gisirikare, ubwo FPR yageraga mu nkengero za Kigali, u Bufaransa bwafashe umwanzuro wo gutangiza igikorwa cyo gufasha ingabo z’u Rwanda, kiswe «Opération Chimère » yamaze ukwezi uhereye tariki ya 20 Gashyantare kugeza 20 Werurwe 1993.

Tariki ya 20/2/1993, u Bufaransa bwohereje Kompanyi 2 z’ingabo zirwanira mu kirere (compagnies parachutistes), umunsi ukurikiyeho bwohereza ingabo zirwanisha ibibunda binini (section de mortiers lourds) mu gushyigikira Leta ya Habyarimana mu ntambara. Ibi na byo ni ikerekana umugambi w’u Bufaransa wo gushyigikira u Rwanda mu mugambi warwo wo gukomeza intambara no gutegura Jenoside. U Bufaransa bwavugaga ko bushyigikiye imishyikirano, nyamara ibikorwa bikerekana ko bushaka intambara.

Raporo ya Misiyo y’Inteko Ishinga Amategeko y’Abafaransa yari ishinzwe kwegeranya amakuru ku Rwanda yari iyobowe na Paul Quiles itangazwa tariki ya 15/12/1998 yanenze iki gikorwa k’intambara, ivuga ko uku « kuba hari abasirikare b’u Bufaransa mu Rwanda byabaye kurengera bakarenga umurongo batagombaga kurenga».  Iyi raporo yongeraho ko abasirikare bari muri iki gikorwa cya gisirikare bongerewe inshingano ku buryo burenze, hiyongeraho gukora irondo, kugenzura uduce dukikije Umujyi wa Kigali, no kugenzura ibyangombwa mu marembo yose ya Kigali.

Muri make, operasiyo za gisirikare u Bufaransa bwakoreye mu Rwanda (Noroit, DAMI, Chimère…) zabaga zifite intego imwe yo gushyigikira ubutegetsi bw’u Rwanda n’ingabo zabwo bigatuma hatabaho gucira akari urutega FPR n’abandi batavuga rumwe n’ubutegetsi. Imbuto za jenoside ziboneka muri iyi politiki y’Igihugu cyari kizi neza ko mu bihe ibyo ari byo byose gishyigikirwa n’igihugu k’igihangange cy’u Bufaransa.

 Serivisi z’ubutasi z’u Bufaransa zemeje ko ingabo z’u Rwanda zishe abaturage 300

 Tariki 18 Gashyantare 1994, ubuyobozi bukuru bw’ubutasi bwo hanze muri serivisi z’ubutasi mu Bufaransa (DGSE) bwanditse inyandiko y’ibanga igaragaza ko habayeho ubwicanyi bushingiye ku moko, hakicwa abantu 300 bishwe n’ingabo z’u Rwanda. Iyo nyandiko ivuga ko ubwo bwicanyi bwari mu mugambi wo gutsemba Abatutsi: « Ni kimwe mu biikorwa bigize umugambi wo gutsemba ubwoko bw’Abatutsi ».

Ku munsi wakurikiyeho, tariki, 19 Gashyantare 1994, Gen. Christian Quesnot, umugaba mukuru w’ingabo wihariye wa Perezida   Mitterrand hamwe na  Dominique Pin wari wungirije umuyobozi w’ishami rishinzwe Afurika  mu biro bya Perezida w’u Bufaransa, bashyikirije Perezida Mitterrand ibitekerezo bibiri by’ingenzi  ku birebana n’u Rwanda:

Igitekerezo cya mbere cyari ugucyura abaturage b’Abafaransa, gucyura abasirikare bo muri operasiyo  Noroît, ariko Quesnot na Pin  ntibari bashyigikiye iki gitekerezo, bagiriye inama Perezida Mitterrand kutagishyigikira: « Kwaba ari ugutsindwa muri poritiki yacu ku Rwanda no gutakaza ikizere dufitiwe ku mugabane w’Afurika».

Igitekerezo cya kabiri ni icyo batekereza igihe FPR yaramuka ifashe Kigali: bavugaga ko FPR ifashe Kigali ubwicanyi bushingiye ku moko bwakaza umurego, bityo u Bufaransa bukaba bukwiye kongera imbaraga kurusha ibindi bihe byose mu gufasha ubutegetsi bwa Kigali kugira ngo FPR idafata Kigali.

Iki na none ni ikimenyetso kigaraza ko u Bufaransa bwari buzi neza ko ubutegetsi bwa Habyarimana bwateguraga jenoside, ariko bugatsimbarara ku bushake bwabwo bwo kubufasha nta cyo bwitayeho. 

Ibi bimenyetso byose bigaragaza ko Leta y’u Rwanda yari ifite umugambi wo kurimbura Abatutsi yishingikirije inkunga ya gisirikare yahabwaga n’Abafaransa. Gushyigira Leta y’u Rwanda byayihaye umwanya wo gukomeza ubwicanyi bwibasiraga abasiviri b’Abatutsi no kunonosora umugambi wo kubatsemba.

Dr. BIZIMANA JEAN-DAMASCENE

Umunyamabanga Nshingwabikorwa wa CNLG

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