17°C , Partly cloudy | Kigali-Rwanda
Umunyamabanga Nshingwabikorwa wa CNLG, Dr Bizimana Jean Damascène, yasobanuye uko Abatutsi bagiye bicwa mu buryo bwateguwe na Leta kuva muri 1959

Ipfundo ry’umuco wo kudahana no gushimagiza abicanyi wimakajwe mu 1959-94

Yanditswe na Nshimyumukiza Janvier Popote

Ku ya 26-04-2019 saa 10:29:50

Dr Bizimama Jean Damascène uyobora Komisiyo y’Igihugu yo Kurwanya Jenoside (CNLG) ahamya ko Abatutsi bakorewe Jenoside zitandukanye nubwo iyo mu 1994 ari yo igarukwaho cyane.

Asobanura ko ubwicanyi bwakorewe Abatutsi mu 1963 na bwo bwiswe Jenoside mu mahanga, nubwo Leta ya Kayibanda Grégoire na Musenyeri André Perraudin bakoranaga bya hafi bamaganye iyo nyito.

Dr Bizimana yabivugiye mu muhango wo Kwibuka ku nshuro ya 25 Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, ku Rwibutso rwa Murambi, mu kiganiro cyibanze ku mateka ya Jenoside muri Perefegitura ya Gikongoro.

Dr Bizimana yavuze ko Jenoside yakozwe mu 1994 “yaje isoza izindi Jenoside zari zaragiye ziba mu bihe bitandukanye”, zose zitegurwa na Leta ndetse zarangira abaziteguye bakihutira kuzihakana.

Yatangiye asobanura uko muri 1959 hatangiye inkubiri y’Amashyaka menshi, APROSOMA na PARMEHUTU akaba ari yo yari afite abayoboke benshi mu bice by’Amajyepfo y’Igihugu.

Ayo mashyaka ngo yakwije disikuru z’urwango zakuwe ahanini mu ibaruwa Perraudin wari Musenyeri wa Diyosezi ya Kabgayi, yanditse kuwa 11 Gashyantare 1959, izwi cyane ku izina rya Super Omnia Caritas.

Dr Bizimana ati, “Muri ibyo baruwa yanditse mu Gifaransa, Perraudin aravuga ati muri uru Rwanda rwacu ibidutanya n’ibitera ubusumbane mu mibeheho, biterwa ahanini n’itandukaniro riri hagati y’amoko kubera ko ubukungu bwose ku ruhande rumwe, ndetse n’ubutegetsi bwa politiki n’ubucamanza ku rundi ruhande biherereye mu by’ukuri ku buryo bukabije hagati y’abantu bakomoka mu bwoko bumwe (Abatutsi).”

Mu isesengura rya Dr Bizimana, asanga iyi baruwa ari mbi cyane kuko “iragaragaza ko hari ikibazo hagati y’amoko, kandi ntacyo” kuko mu by’ukuri “ntabwo Abatutsi bose bari ku butegetsi.”

Yunzemo ati, “Unagiye mu mateka ya mbere, muri 1926-31 habaye ivugurura ryayobowe n’uwitwaga Voisin noneho Abashefu n’Abasushefu b’Abahutu bari mu butegetsi babakuramo. Ntabwo hano Perraudin avuga na rimwe ko abategetsi b’Abahutu bari mu nzego bavanwemo n’Abakoloni bagiriwe inama n’Abaminisiyoneri bari mu muryango umwe na Musenyeri Perraudin b’Abapadiri Bera, ikibazo cyose akacyitirira Abatutsi. Iyi baruwa ni imwe mu ntangiriro zo kwigisha ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside kuko Gitera na Kayibanda bayuririyeho. Yabahaye icyo twakwita mu Gifaransa appui moral, bayishingiyeho ngo bajye kwigisha urwango, amategeko 10 y’Abahutu n’ibindi.”

Nyuma y’amezi hafi icumu iyo baruwa ya Perraudin isohotse igakwirakwira, guhera tariki 1 Ugushyingo 1959 ubwicanyi bwaratangiye, butangirira mu Byimana hashingiwe ngo ku rushyi Dominique Mbonyumutwa waje kuba Perezida wa Mbere w’u Rwanda, icyo gihe yari ku Sushefu ku Ndiza, yakubitiwe mu Byimana avuye mu misa.

Dr Bizimana ati, “Urwo rushyi Mbonyumutwa yakubiswe rutuma Abaparmehutu bakwiza y’uko abayoboke babo batewe, noneho basaba Abaparmehutu bose aho bari ko bagomba kwica Abatutsi no kwitabara. Abatutsi baricwa hose hano hahoze hitwa Bufundu (Nyamagabe) hakurya hahoze hitwa u Bunyambiriri (Nyaruguru), batwikirwa amazu abandi babata mu migezi, Mwogo, Rukarara, mu byumweru bibiri hakorwa ibyo bita ngo Gutanga ihumure.”

Kuwa 12 Ugushyingo 1959, nk’uko Dr Bizimana abivuga, ubutegetsi bwatangaje ko habayeho ihumure, basaba abantu kureka kwica, mu ntangiriro za 1960 ubutegetsi busaba ko habarurwa abishwe.

Ati, “Kwica buri gihe byagiye bikorwa n’ubutegetsi, akaba ari bo babihagarika, nyuma yo kubuhagarika noneho hakajyaho umurongo wo gukora za raporo z’abishwe, kugira ngo hamenyekane abishwe n’abatarapfa.”

“Urugero ni ibaruwa yanditswe n’umuzungu, wari Administrateur, ni ukuvuga yari nka Guverineri w’iki gihe, wayoboraga Teritwari ya Nyanza, mu 1960, yageneye Abashefu batwaraga za Sheferi zose za Nyanza, Ati, “Nshimishijwe no kubasaba kungezaho bitarenze tariki 10 Kamena urutonde rw’abantu bishwe muri sheferi muyobora, bishwe mu mvururu zabaye cyangwa bishwe nyuma bishingiye kuri izo mvururu zo muri 1959. Urwo rutonde rugomba kuba rwuzuye nta n’umwe mwibagiwe. Rugomba kugaragaza abantu bose bishwe mu kwezi kw’Ugushyingo gushize n’abishwe muri uyu mwaka wa 1960. Mugomba kugaragaza kuri urwo rutonde abantu bishwe n’Ingabo z’Igihugu n’abishwe n’amashyaka ya politiki. Mugomba kwandika izina ry’uwishwe, izina rya se na nyina, itariki y’uwishweho n’impamvu yishwe.”

Mu mboni za Dr Bizimana, iyi baruwa irerekana ko ubutegetsi ari bwo bwayoboraga ubwicanyi kuko uyu mu Administrateur arasaba urutonde rw’abishwe ariko ntasaba urw’abishwe ngo bakurikiranwe.

Ati, “Aha murumva ko dutangiye umuco wo gushyigikira kudahana, ahubwo no gushimagiza abicanyi, iki rero ni kimwe mu bibazo Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi yahuye na cyo kuko buri gihe himitswe uyu muco wo kudahana ahubwo no guhemba no gushima ababikoze.”

Ubwicanyi bwo ku Gikongoro, mu 1963

Nyuma y’ibyo, muri Gikongoro hakozwe ubwicanyi bubi ndetse biranandikwa mu bitangazamakuru mpuzamahanga, abazungu barabibona, babitangamo ubuhamya iwabo, bavuga ko ari Jenoside, nk’uko Bizimana abivuga.

Ati, “Nanone habaye urwitwazo, buri gihe haba urwitwazo cyangwa imbarutso ituma ibintu bikorwa. Hari agatsiko gato k’impunzi bateye bavuye mu Burundi bambukira mu Bugesera bashobora gufata Ikigo cya Gisirikari cy’i Gako, yewe bicamo n’abasirikari 10 b’igihugu, barakomeza bagera ku iteme rya Kanzenze, ni hafi y’i Gahanga gato, noneho Ingabo z’Igihugu ziraza, cyane cyane abenshi bari Ababiligi, n’Abanyecongo, bararwana, abenshi barahagwa muri abo bitwaga Inyenzi, abandi barafatwa barafungwa, baricwa, ibyo rero birangiye ni bwo hatangiye noneho igikorwa cyo gushishikariza ubwicanyi mu gihugu cyane cyane mu bice byari bituwemo n’Abatutsi benshi uhereye mu Bugesera biraza bigera n’aha ngaha (Gikongoro).

Amatariki, izo Nyenzi zateye (ndakoresha ijambo bakoresheje, murambabarira) ku itariki 20 Ugushyingo 1963, ku munsi wakurikiyeho, Perezida Kayibanda yakoresheje inama na Guverinoma ye, inama irangiye avuga ijambo kuri Radio Rwanda, ko igihugu cyatewe kandi muri uko guterwa kw’igihugu ashyiramo ijambo ribi rivuga ngo, niba Inyenzi zishoboye gufata Kigali nubwo bitazashoboka, biraba imperuka kandi yihuse y’ubwoko bw’Abatutsi. Biryumvikana neza, Kayibanda arababwira ko Inyenzi zitazashobora kugera i Kigali kandi ni byo koko bari bamaze kuzigizayo, ariko akavuga ko hari hagiye gukurikiraho imperuka y’ubwoko bw’Abatutsi, ni ukuvuga kubica, Jenoside, mwibuke ko iryo jambo na Bagosora yarivuze muri 93 nyuma y’imyaka 30 rivuzwe na Kayibanda.”

“Kuwa 22 Ugushyingo 1963, ya nama Kayibanda yari yayoboye, yari yanafashe undi mwanzuro w’uko muri za Perefegitura zifite umubare mwinshi b’Abatutsi hagomba koherezwa Umuminisitiri ujya kuyobora no gutanga amabwirizwa y’uko ubwicanyi bugomba gukorwa. Buri Perefegitura bayigenera Minisitiri ujyayo, hano ku Gikongoro bahohereje Minisitiri Jean Baptiste Rwasibo wari Minisitiri w’Ubutegetsi bw’Igihugu. Abo baminisitiri rero ni bo baje bakora n’Abaperefe kuyobora uko ubwicanyi bugomba kugenda. Kuri 23 Ugushyingo bakorana inama, buri minisitiri akorana inama na Perefe n’abayobozi b’inzego z’imirimo muri Perefegitura yoherejwemo noneho bagena uburyo kwica Abatutsi bigomba gukorwa.”

Dr Bizimana avuga ko ku munsi wakurikiyeho Perefe Nkeramugaba wa Gikongoro, yakoresheje ba burugumesitiri be inama y’uko ubwicanyi bugomba gukorwa, uwo munsi ubwicanyi butangira nijoro.

Ati, “Iyo ugiye muri raporo zakozwe n’Ababiligi ndetse n’Abapadiri bari kuri Paruwasi ya Cyanika na Kaduha, bagaragaza ko tariki 26-27 Ugushyingo ari ho ubwicanyi bwabaye bwinshi kandi bubi kuko raporo z’Abapadiri zigaragaza ko Abatutsi batawe mu migezi ya Mwogo na Rukarara babahambiriye amaboko inyuma mu mugongo kugira ngo badashobora koga, abandi bakabashyira mu nzu zabo zari ibyatsi bagafunga bagatwika, abana impinja, abasaza bagahira mu nzu muri ubwo buryo.”

Umunyamabanga Nshingwabikorwa wa CNLG, Dr Bizimana Jean Damascène, yasobanuye uko Abatutsi bagiye bicwa mu buryo bwateguwe na Leta kuva muri 1959

Ibyaranze ubwicanyi bwo muri 1963

Umunyamabanga Nshingwabikorwa wa CNLG, Dr Bizimana Jean Damascène, avuga ko mu 1963 ari ho hatangiye umuco wo guhemba abicanyi kuko abishe bahembwe inka z’Abatutsi, bikozwe na Perefe na ba Burugumesitiri be.

Icya kabiri, nk’uko Bizimana abihamya, ni uko ubwo bwicanyi bwamenyekanye mu mahanga kandi bugahabwa inyito ya Jenoside icyo gihe.

Ati, “Icya gatatu kidasanzwe kivugwa cyane ariko gikomeye ni uko, ni bwo hatangiye nanone umuco wo gupfobya Jenoside, gupfobya ubwicanyi, kandi nanone bigakorwa bikozwe na Leta ndetse na Kiliziya. Muri Mutarama 1964 nyuma y’ibyumweru hafi bitatu ubwicanyi bubaye, Musenyeri Perraudin yanditse amabaruwa abiri, iya mbere ni iyo yandikiye Papa Yohani XXIII na Radio Vatican, ababwira ko ibyavuzwe mu mahanga ko hari Jenoside yabaye mu Rwanda ari ibinyoma, ko yego hari abantu bakeya bishwe ariko ko n’abo bishwe byaturutse ku gitero bo ubwabo bateye, kandi akavuga ati ubwo bwicanyi byavuzwe mu bitangazamakuru byo mu mahanga harimo na Radio Vativan babeshye babyitirira Kayibanda, ati Perezida Kayibanda nta ruhare abifitemo, ntashobora kwica kuko ni Perezida w’Umukilizitu. Perraudin anabimenyesha Radio Mpuzamahanga y’Abafaransa kuko na yo yari yasohoye amakuru abivuga.”

Nyuma y’ibyo bisobanuro bya Musenyeri Perraudin, Dr Bizimana avuga ko Perezida Kayibanda na we yanditse ibaruwa ijya gusa n’iyo, kuwa 29 Mutarama 1964, ivuga ibintu bibiri by’ingenzi.

Dr Bizimana ati, “Aravuga ibintu 2, ko hari ubwicanyi bwabaye ariko ko bwatewe n’uko Abatutsi bari barabaye ibyitso by’Inyenzi, ko Inyenzi zari zarashoboye gucengera zikagera mu Cyanika n’i Kaduha, noneho hagategurwa gahunda yo kugira ngo bazice Abahutu, hanyuma Abahutu babimenye, bivuye kuri icyo gitero cy’Inyenzi cyo mu Bugesera bahita bica Abatutsi bitabara. Ni ibaruwa ya Guverinoma yoherejwe hirya no hino ku Isi.”

Iyo baruwa ya Kayibanda yoherejwe hirya no hino ku Isi, nk’uko Dr Bizimana abivuga, iragira iti, “Guhera kuwa 21 Ukuboza Inyenzi zateye i Gako zitungura abasirikari zicamo babiri, abandi bagirwa imfungwa bahohoterwa bihagije banakorerwa iyicarubozo. Ingabo z’Igihugu zabashije gutabara zinyanyagiza izo Nyenzi zisanga bamwe muri bo ari abanyamahanga. Muri icyo gikorwa Ingabo z’Igihugu zabashije kubona impapuro zashyikirijwe ubuyobozi bukuru bw’iperereza zigaragaza ko abateye igihugu bari bafite ibyitso imbere mu gihugu bahatuye, bamwe bakaba bari no mu Nteko Ishinga Amategeko ndetse no mu nzego za Leta. Isaka ryakorewe mu ngo z’abo bantu zagaragaje ko koko bafatanyije n’abateye u Rwanda, hari n’umwe muri bo byagaragaye ko ari we wagombaga kugirwa Minisitiri muri iyo Guverinoma y’Inyenzi, ndetse hanafashwe disikuru yagomba kugeza ku baturage kuri uwo munsi. Na mbere y’iterwa ry’ikigo cya Gisirikari cya Gako hari Inyenzi z’Abatutsi zari zarashoboye gucengera mu Karere ka Gikongoro, i Kaduha no mu Cyanika, bikaba byagaragajwe n’inyandiko zafashwe, abo bantu bakaba baragombaga kugaba ibitero kuwa 21 Ukuboza 1963, bari barabanje gukwiza impuha no gutera ubwoba abaturage. Inkuru yo guterwa kw’ikigo cya Gako ikimara kumenyekana mu gice cya Gikongoro, i Kaduha no mu Cyanika abaturage baho bamenye ko ari bo bagombaga kwicwa nabi na za Nyenzi zabinjiyemo noneho kubera ubwoba bw’urupfu rwari rubategereje bagira uburakari bahindukirana abicanyi barabica.”

Dr Bizimana avuga ko ihakana n’ipfobya rya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994 rifite imizi mu bwicanyi bwakozwe mu 1963, aho ubutegetsi bwasobanuye ko abishwe ari abanzi b’igihugu bishwe n’abaturage mu rwego rwo kwitabara.

Mu mboni za Dr Bizimana, avuga ko ibisobanuro bya Kayibanda nta shingiro byari bifite kuko bitumvikana ukuntu hatewe Ikigo cya Gisirikari cya Gako mu Bugesera, hakicwa abo muri Gikongoro, mu birometero bisaga 100 uvuye aho igitero cyagabwe.

Icya kane cyaranze ubwicanyi bwo mu 1963, nk’uko akomeza abisobanura, kirumvikanisha impamvu abantu muri 1994 bishe ntacyo bikanga: Leta yatanze imbabazi ku bicanyi ivuga ko bishe bitabara.

Dr Bizimana ati, “Leta yashyizeho amategeko atanga amnistie, ni ukuvuga amategeko ashyiraho icyo twakwita kudakurikirana uwo ari we wese wagize uruhare mu bwicanyi kuva muri 1959, 1960 kugeza muri 1963. Hagiyeho itegeko rya mbere ryaje mbega ritanga cyane cyane amnistie, ku bwicanyi bwo muri 1959 na 1960, ryari iryo kuri 20 Gicurasi 1963, ingingo ya mbere dore icyo ivuga: “Imbabazi rusange kandi zisesuye zitagibwaho impaka izo ari zo zose, zitanzwe ku byaha byose byakozwe ku gihe cya révolution ya rubanda guhera ku itariki 1 Ukwakira 1959 kugeza tariki 1 Nyakanga 1962, ibyo byaha bikaba mu miterere yabyo, ku mpamvu zabiteye, mu buryo byakozwemo, cyangwa ibyashingiweho mu kubikora byarakozwe mu rwego rw’urugamba rwo kubohora igihugu bikaba rero ari ibyaha bya politiki nubwo bwose byaba byarakozwe nk’ibyaha bisanzwe.”

Ingingo ya 2 y’iryo tegeko yavugaga ko “niba hari Umututsi wishe Umuhutu wari umuteye, bitari mu rwego rw’iyo révolution, we ntabwo arebwa n’izi mbabazi, ntibarebwa n’imbabazi zivuzwe mu gika cya mbere cy’iri tegeko, ibyaha byose byakozwe muri icyo gihe kimaze kuvugwa n’abantu barwanyaga uko kwibohora kwakorwaga n’imbaga nyamwinshi y’abaturage bari barakandamijwe n’ingoma ya cyami, gihake na gikolonize” nk’uko Dr Bizimana yabishimangiye.

Iryo tegeko ryagiyeho mu Gicurasi 1963, ubwicanyi bwo mu Kuboza 1963 buza busanga abaturage bafite itegeko ribarengera, bazi neza ko nibajya kwica nta wuzigera abakurikirana. Dr Bizimana ati, “Ngiyo rero impamvu yatumye ubwicanyi bwo muri 1963, abakuze mwarabibonye, njye nari uruhinja, bwarakaze bugafata intera ya Jenoside, ni ukubera, kimwe muri byo, ni iri tegeko.”

Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu 1994

Amateka agaragaza ko kimwe n’ahandi mu gihugu, ubwo RPF-Inkotanyi yatangizaga urugamba rwo kubohora igihugu, Abatutsi bo muri Gikongoro batotejwe, cyane cyane abari bari mu mirimo.

Mu mwaka wa 1991 hatangiye inkubiri y’amashyaka menshi, kuko Itegeko Nshinga ryo mu 1978 ryo ryavugaga ko Ishyaka rya MRND rya Perezida Habyarimana ari ryo ryonyine ryemewe mu gihugu.

Muri uko kuvuka kw’amashyaka menshi, Abanyagikongoro batarashyigikiraga imigambi ya MRND barimo Gapyisi Emmanuel bashinze ishyaka rya MDR, Frederick Nzamurambaho uvuka mu Cyanika muri Komini Rukondo afatanya n’abandi bashinga ishyaka rya PSD, noneho MRND itangira kubura abantu.

Mu mboni za Leta, nk’uko Dr Bizimana abivuga, opozisiyo yabonye abayoboke benshi muri Gikongoro kuko iyo Perefegitura yayoborwaga n’umuntu utayikomokamo, Habiyambere Yozefu wakomokaga muri Perefegitura ya Gisenyi.

Bizimana avuga ko Habiyambere yageze muri Gikongoro abaturage ntibamwiyumvamo kuko bamufataga nk’Umukiga, maze “MRND ku rwego rw’igihugu yiga amayeri, baravuga bati Gikongoro tukwiye kuyijyanamo umuntu uhakomoka Abanyagikongoro bazibonamo, bigatuma imigambi dufite bayikurikiza. Nguko rero uko bahavanye Perefe Habiyambere bazana Perefe Bucyibaruta Laurenti uvuka muri Komini Musange hakurya aha, noneho Bucyibaruta aza afite mission (inshingano) nk’uhavuka yo kongera guhuza Abanyagikongoro kugira ngo bishyire hamwe.”

Uyu Bucyibaruta aba mu Bufaransa, mu byaha aregwa hakaba harimo n’ubwicanyi bwakorewe abasaga ibihumbi 50 biciwe i Murambi mu Karere ka Nyamagabe, kuwa 21 Mata 1994.

TANGA IGITEKEREZO

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *