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HABIMANA AUGUSTIN

Inshingano, imiterere, imikorere, ububasha n’umwihariko bya Banki Nkuru y’u Rwanda

Yanditswe na HABIMANA AUGUSTIN

Ku ya 30-04-2018 saa 06:45:25

Habimana Augustin

(Igice cya mbere)

Mu bihugu byose byo ku Isi habaho Banki Nkuru ishinzwe kubungabunga agaciro k’ifaranga rya buri gihugu no gukurikirana ibijyanye n’urwego rw’imari ngo bidahungabanya ubukungu bw’ibyo bihugu. Izo Banki ziba zikurikirana ibikorwa byose bijyanye n’amabanki n’ibigo by’imari ndetse n’ibikorwa by’ivunjisha. Mu gihugu cyacu izo nshingano n’ubwo bubasha bifitwe na Banki Nkuru y’u Rwanda.

 

+-Mu Rwanda mbere y’ubukoloni, ubucuruzi bwakorwaga habaho kugurana ibyo umwe adafite n’ibyo undi afite, byaba ari ibikomoka ku bihingwa cyangwa ku matungo.

Mu gihe cy’ubukoloni, byaba mu gihe u Rwanda rwari rukolonijwe n’u Budage no mu gihe rwari rukolonijwe n’u Bubiligi hagiye habaho gukoresha amafaranga atandukanye mu bucuruzi nk’uko abakoloni babishakaga.

Mu 1952 hashyizweho Banki yari ihuriweho n’ibihugu byari bikolonijwe n’u Bubiligi yitwaga “Central Bank of Belgian Congo and Ruanda-Urundi”, ariyo yacungaga ibijyanye n’amafaranga muri ibyo bihugu uko ari bitatu (Congo, Rwanda n’u Burundi). Igihugu cya Kongo kimaze kubona ubwigenge, mu mwaka wa 1960, Igihugu cya Kongo cyashyizeho Banki yacyo, noneho mu Rwanda n’u Burundi hashyirwaho   “Bank of Rwanda and Burundi/Banque d’Emission du Rwanda et du Burundi” (B.E.R.B.), yari ifite ikicaro i Bujumbura, ikagira n’ishami ryayo i Kigali.

U Rwanda n’u Burundi bimaze kubona ubwigenge, na byo byashyizeho Banki zabyo, ni muri urwo rwego Banki Nasiyonari y’u Rwanda nk’uko yitwaga icyo gihe, yashyizweho n’Itegeko ryo ku wa 24 Mata 1964, riza guhindurwa n’itegeko n° 55/2007 ryo ku wa 30/11/2007 rigenga Banki Nkuru y’u Rwanda, naryo ryahinduwe n’itegeko n°48/2017 ryo ku wa 23/09/2017 rigenga Banki Nkuru y’u Rwanda, ryasohotse mu Igazeti ya Leta ya Repubulika y’u Rwanda n°41 yo ku wa 09/10/2017. Izo mpinduka zose zagiye zikorwa kugira ngo hubahirizwe ahanini amahame n’amabwiriza mpuzamahanga agenga za Banki Nkuru z’Ibihugu ndetse n’ibyabaga biteganywa n’Itegeko Nshinga rya Repubulika y’u Rwanda.

Imari shingiro ya Banki Nkuru y’u Rwanda itangwa na Leta, ubu ikaba igeze kuri miliyari zirindwi z’amafaranga y’u Rwanda (7.000.000.000 FRW) nk’uko tubisanga mu ngingo ya gatatu (3) y’iryo tegeko, ariko bibaye ngombwa ishobora kongerwa.

N’ubwo ikicaro cya BNR kiri mu Mujyi wa Kigali, Umurwa Mukuru wa Repubulika y’u Rwanda, gishobora kwimurirwa ahandi aho ari ho hose mu Rwanda igihe bibaye ngombwa. BNR ariko ishobora gushinga ishami ryayo aho ari ho hose mu gihugu byemejwe n’Inama y’Ubuyobozi. Muri iki gihe BNR ifite amashami nk’i Rwamagana, i Musanze, Huye, Rusizi na Rubavu. BNR ishobora kandi kugena ibigo by’imari bikora nk’intumwa zayo mu Rwanda no mu mahanga cyangwa kuyihagararira mu mahanga.

Inshingano za BNR

Nk’uko bisobanurwa mu ngingo ya 6 y’itegeko n°48/2017 ryo ku wa 23/09/2017 rigenga Banki Nkuru y’u Rwanda, n’ubwo BNR ifite inshingano rusange zo kubungabunga agaciro k’ifaranga no kubaka urwego rw’imari rutajegajega, ariko ifite n’inshingano z’umwihariko zirimo:  kugena no gushyira mu bikorwa politiki yerekeye ifaranga, gutunganya, kugenzura no guhuza ibikorwa by’isoko ry’ivunjisha, kugenzura no gushyiraho amabwiriza agenga ibigo by’imari harimo amabanki, ibigo by’imari iciriritse, ibigo biguriza bitakira amafaranga ya rubanda, ibigo bikora imirimo y’ikodeshagurisha, ibigo by’ubwishingizi, ibigo by’ubwiteganyirize bw’abakozi, ibigega by’ubwiteganyirize n’indi mirimo y’imari itagenzurwa n’urundi rwego hashingiwe ku mategeko yihariye.

Kugenzura no gushyiraho amabwiriza rusange agenga uburyo bw’imyishyuranire, gusesengura urwego rw’imari hagamijwe gushyigikira ukwiyongera n’iterambere by’ubukungu, gushyiraho no gushyira mu bikorwa politiki zo guteza imbere ishyirwaho ry’amabwiriza rusange n’igenzura by’uburyo bw’ihwanyabwishyu n’uburyo bw’imyishyuranire bunoze kandi bukora neza, gukora no gucunga ifaranga, kubika no gucunga amafaranga y’amanyamahanga, kuba umubitsi wa Leta, gukusanya, kwegeranya, gukwirakwiza mu gihe gikwiye ibitabo by’imibare y’ibarura yerekeye ifaranga n’imari, gukurikirana no guteza imbere imikorere y’ibigo by’imari no kugenzura ko byubahiriza amategeko abigenga harimo itegeko rikumira kandi rikanahana icyaha k’iyezandonke no gutera inkunga iterabwoba, gukurikirana ko ibigo by’imari bishyiraho politiki n’uburyo bunoze bw’igenzura n’imicungire y’ingorane zavuka, gushyiraho politiki zirinda uburenganzira n’inyungu by’abakiliya, ababitsa n’abandi bafite inyungu iyo ari yo yose itari ukubitsa mu bigo by’imari hitaweho ko ibigo by’imari bikeneye gupiganwa neza ku isoko no gukora ibishoboka byose birinda ingorane zishobora kubaho, gukora indi nshingano yahabwa n’andi mategeko.

Inzego za BNR ni izihe? Umwihariko wa BNR ni uwuhe? Ese BNR igenzurwa ite? BNR itanga raporo hehe? Ibyo byose bizasobanurwa mu nyandiko zizakurikiraho.

TANGA IGITEKEREZO

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1 Comment on "Inshingano, imiterere, imikorere, ububasha n’umwihariko bya Banki Nkuru y’u Rwanda"

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TWAGIRAYEZU Gilbert
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Ibi ni byiza cyane kuba mutanga amakuru nkaya munvaho,bituma abanyarwanda basobanukirwa neza imikorere n’inshingano BNR ifite, mboneyeho no kuba nibigo nka RRA,RIB,n’URUKIKO RWIKIRENGA kuba nabo bajya bakoresha ubu buryo.