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Imikorere n’amateka bya Sena ya mbere ku Isi

Yanditswe na Mugabo Lambert

Ku ya 08-09-2019 saa 12:57:46
Sena ya mbere ku Isi ikomoka mu Buromani bwa kera, ni yo yagiye ikura, ikwira ku Isi yose na bugingo n'ubu

Mu Rwanda haritegurwa amatora y’Abasenateri ateganywa kuva tariki ya 16 kugeza ku ya 18 Nzeri 2019. Urwego rwa Sena ntirumaze igihe kinini mu Rwanda, ariko ku Isi ni urwego rufite amateka, rumaze igihe kinini cyane.

Sena yahereye mu Buromani, ari naho hakomotse iyi nyito kugeza magingo aya, n’ubwo imikorere ahanini idahuye. Mu Buromani Sena bitewe n’igihe yabaga igezemo, hari aho yakoraga nk’uko ubu ikora mu bihugu byinshi ku Isi.

Sena y’Uburomani bwa kera ni yo ya mbere ku Isi. Rwari urwego rukomeye mu mateka y’Abaromani. Uru rwego mu Baromani rwashingiwe rimwe n’umugi mukuru w’Abaromani hari mu mwaka wa 753 BC (mbere ya Yesu/Yezu Kristu). Sena mu gihe cy’ubwami bw’Abaromani rwari urwego rukomeye rwa Politiki.

Ijambo sena (senate) rikomoka ku ijambo ry’ikiratini “Senex” ari byo bishatse kuvuga “umusaza” cyangwa se “umugabo ukuze” mu Kinyarwanda, bityo ngo Abaromani uru rwego bakaba bararwitaga ko ari “Ihuriro ry’abakuze” cyangwa se “Inama y’abakuru.”

Imikorere ya Sena mu gihe cy’ubwami bw’Abaromani

Sena ya mbere ku Isi yahereye mu Baromani, yashinzwe n’umwami wa mbere w‘Abaromani witwaga Romulus, icyo ihe ikaba yari igizwe n’abagabo ijana bakuze. Abakomotse kuri aba bagabo ijana ni bo baje kuvamo abitwaga “Imfura z’Abaromani” ari rwo rwego rwitwaga “Patrician.”

Nyuma, umwami wa gatatu w’Abaromani witwaga Lucius Tarquinius Priscus we yaje kwishyiriraho abasenateri abatoranyije mu miryango ya mbere y’abana bayoboraga ingo bitwa “Minorum gentium”. Bigeze ku mwami wa karindwi w’Abaromani, ari na we wa nyuma witwaga Lucius Tarquinius Superbus yishe benshi mu Basenateri, maze ntiyabasimbuza, bityo umubare wabo uragabanuka.

Mu mwaka wa 509 mbere ya Yesu/Yezu Kristu, ba Consula (abayobozi b’abacamanza) Lucius Junius Brutus na Publius Valerius Publicola baje gutoranya abagabo mu bayobozi bitondaga cyangwa se bacishaga make, b’inyangamugayo, maze bakuramo Abasenateri. Aba bitwaga “Conscripti” bityo hongerwa n’umubare wabo uva ku ijana uba 300.

Ku gihe cy’ubwami bw’Abaromani, Sena yakoraga nk’urwego rugenzura urwego nyubahirizategeko, igakora kandi nk’umujyanama w’umwami, ikaba kandi urwego nshingamategeko Abaromani bagenderaho.

Mu gihe cy’ingoma ya cyami (monarchy), sena ni yo yatoraga umwami, mu gihe mbere umwami yatorwaga n’abaturage. Igihe cyabagaho hagati ya nyuma yo gutanga k’umwami no gutora undi (igihe yabaga ataratorwa) kitwaga “Interregnum.”

Urwego rwa Sena rwatoranyaga izina ry’ugomba gusimbura umwami, agashyikirizwa abaturage, bakamutora, noneho Sena ikaba ari yo imwimika. Gusa umwami umwe wenyine ni we watowe na Sena ubwayo hatarimo uruhare rw’abaturage. Uwo ni uwitwaga Servius Tullius. Nyuma yo gutora umwami no kumushyiraho, Sena yagombaga kumukurikirana, ikamugira inama. Umwami ntabwo yapfaga kuba yasuzugura inama za Sena. Gusa n’ubwo sena ngo yashoboraga gushyiraho amategeko mashya, umwami na we yayashyiragaho, ariko abasenateri n’urwego rw’abaturage rwitwaga “Curiate Assembly” bakabigiramo uruhare.

Sena mu gihe cya Repubulika y’Abaromani

Sena yo mu gihe cya Repubulika mu Buromani rwari urwego rwa politiki. Uru rwego rwashyiragaho amateka yitwaga “Senatus consulta” yasaga nk’aho yafatwaga nk’inama iva ku basenateri ijya ku rwego rw’ubutabera. Izi nama ngo zagombaga kubahwa zigashyirwa mu bikorwa. Iyo Iteka ryatorwaga n’Abasenateri “Senatus consultum” ryahuraga n’itegeko “lex” ryatowe n’urwego rw’amategeko, itegeko ryahitaga rivaho kuko “Senatus consultum” ari ryo teka ryabaga rifite ingufu kurusha itegeko. Gusa na none iri teka ryashoboraga gukoreshwa mu gusobanura itegeko.

Hagendewe ku nama zabo, Abasenateri bayoboraga abacamanza, cyane cyane “Roman Consuls” ari bo bayobozi b’abacamanza, mu guca imanza zishingiye ku makimbirane mu gisirikare. Sena kandi yari ifite imbaraga ziri hejuru ya Guverinoma muri icyo gihe cya Repubulika. Impamvu ngo ni uko ari yo yari ifite ubushobozi bwo gucunga imari ya Leta, ikanagena uko umutungo wa rubanda ugomba gukoreshwa. Uko Uburomani bwakuraga, Sena yagize izindi mbaraga zo kugenzura imikorere y’intara zayoborwaga n’abahoze ari abayobozi b’abacamanza, kandi sena ikaba ari yo igena ugomba kuyobora intara iyi n’iyi.

Kubera imbaraga za Sena, mu mwaka wa 202 nyuma ya Yesu/Yezu Kristu, Abasenateri batoye iteka riha abayobozi b’abacamanza uburenganzira bwo gukoresha uburyo bwose bushoboka “Senatus consultum ultimum” bwo gukemura ikibazo cyaba cyavutse. Inama z’Abasenateri zashoboraga kubera mu mugi aho ikorera “pomerium” cyangwa hanze y’umugi ariko ku ntera itarenga “mile” imwe, ni ukuvuga km 1.60934. Sena kandi yagenderaga ku mahame n’imigenzo by’amadini anyuranye.

Inama y’Abasenateri yaberaga mu ruhame. Uwayoboraga inama ya Sena, ari we mucamanza mukuru uhagarariye abandi, yayitangizaga ijambo, noneho akageza ku basenateri ikibazo cyo kwigaho, noneho bakacyunguranaho ibitekerezo. Nta kemezo cyashoboraga gutorerwa buri musenateri wese atabanje kuvuga no gutanganga igitekerezo ke.

Hari kandi ibyo Abasenateri batari bemerewe nko gukorana n’amabanki cyangwa se mu bundi bucuruzi rusange ubwo ari bwo bwose. Ntabwo bashoboraga gutunga amato manini ashobora gukora ubucuruzi mpuzamahanga, kandi nta musenateri washoboraga kuva mu Butaliyani adafite uruhushya rwa Sena. Ntabwo kandi bagiraga umushahara runaka. Gutorerwa kujya mu rwego rw’ubucamanza, uwatowe yahitaga yinjira muri Sena.

Sena mu gihe cy’ubwami bwagutse bw’Abaromani (Empire)

Nyuma y’isenyuka rya Repubulika y’Abaromani, Itegeko Nshinga ryavanye imbaraga kuri Sena zishyirwa ku mwami w’abami (Roman Emperor). Icyo gihe ibyezo bya Sena byashoboraga gusuzugurwa n’umwami w’abami kuko yabaga afite ubushobozi bwinshi. Umwami w’abami wa mbere witwaga Augustus, yagabanyije umubare w’abasenateri, bava kuri 900 baba 600. Mu gihe cy’ubwami bwagutse, uwabaga umusenateri yagombaga gutorwa (Quaestor) mu bacamanza. Gusa umwami w’abami na we yashoboraga gushyiraho abasenateri akoresheje iteka.

Mu gihe k’inama ya Sena, umwami w’abami yabaga yicaye hagati y’abacamanza bakuru babiri, akaba ari nk’aho yari we wayoboraga inama. Icyo gihe abasenateri bashoboraga kubaza ibibazo cyangwa se bagasaba ko igikorwa runaka cyakorwa n’abasenateri. Gusa kuko babaga baciyemo ibice, abasenateri bo mu rwego rwo hejuru bavugaga mbere y’abo mu rwego rwo hasi, naho umwami w’abami we yashoboaga kuvuga igihe cyose ashakiye. Aba bacamanza bakuru nabo bashoboraga kuyobora inama ya Sena igihe umwami w’abami yabaga adahari.

Ahagana mu mwaka wa 300 nyuma ya Yesu/Yezu Kristu, umwami w’abami Diocletian yavuguruye Itegeko Nshinga maze muri iryo vugurura ashyiramo ko umwami (emperor) ashobora gufata ubutegetsi igihe cyose ashakiye hatabayeho uruhare rwa Sena. Uyu mugabo yakuyeho ububasha Sena yari ifite bwo kwigenga mu gutora amategeko, mu bucamanza, cyangwa se mu matora.

Gusa Sena icyo yasigaranye ngo ni ubwigenge mu mategeko agenga imikino rusange i Roma, na gahunda za Sena. Kandi Sena yahamanye ububasha bwo gukurikirana no gucira imanza abakurikiranyweho ubugambanyi, no gutora abacamanza ariko habanje kubaho uruhushya rw’umwami w’abami. Mu myaka ya nyuma y’ubwami bw’abami (empire), abasenateri bashoboraga rimwe na rimwe kwishyiriraho umwami w’abami. Urugero ni uwitwa Eugenius.

Ubwigenge bukomeye Abasenateri basigaranye kandi, ngo ni ubwo kongerera imbaraga idini ry’Abaromani cyane cyane mu gukwirakwiza ubukristu. Ibi byatumye mu mwaka wa 498 Sena ishyiraho papa (pope) Laurentius, mu gihe umwami Theodoric n’umwami w’abami Anastasius bari bashyigikiye uwitwaga Symmachus. Hagati mu kinyejana cya cumi ibiro bishya bya Sena “proeder” byarafunguwe nk’icyicaro gikuru cya Sena, bifunguwe n’umwami w’abami Nicephorus Phocas. Sena ya mbere ku Isi yabayeho kugeza mu ntangiriro z’ikinyejena cya 13, igikorwa cyayo cya nyuma cyabaye gutora umwami w’abami Nicolas Canabus hari mu mwaka wa 1204.

Nyuma ya sena y’Abaromani yamaze imyaka ikabakaba ibihumbi bibiri, Sena ya Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Amerika yatangiye mu 1787, imaze imyaka 232. Sena y’u Rwanda imaze imyaka 16, yatangiye mu 2003. Kuba ikiri nto mu myaka byatewe n’amateka yakunze kuranga u Rwanda, haba mu gihe cy’ubukoroni, na nyuma ya bwo mu butegetsi bw’igitugu bwaranze u Rwanda kugera mu 1994.

Nyamara mu Rwanda rwa kera, abakoroni batarahindura Igihugu uko bishakiye, urwego rwa Sena rwagereranywa n’Abiru, bo bamenyaga uzaba umwami, bakamwimika, bakamenya uko abami bakurikirana n’uko bakurikiranye, bakagira n’uruhare mu miyoborere y’Igihugu, bagafatwa nk’abajyanama b’umwami.

Sena ya mbere ku Isi ikomoka mu Buromani bwa kera, ni yo yagiye ikura, ikwira ku Isi yose na bugingo n’ubu

TANGA IGITEKEREZO

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