Ibyo wamenya ku mpapuro mpeshamwenda Leta y’u Rwanda ishyira ku isoko

Yanditswe na Tumukunde Georgine

Ku ya 12-02-2020 saa 16:49:31
Rugambwa Jean Marie ushinzwe guteza imbere isoko ry’imari muri BNR

Leta y’u Rwanda ibinyujije muri Banki Nkuru y’u Rwanda (BNR) ishyira Impapuro mpeshamwenda ku isoko kugira ngo Abanyarwanda bazigure babonemo inyungu kandi byunganire n’ingengo y’imari ya Leta.

Ni gahunda ituma Abanyarwanda bitabira ibijyanye no gushora imari no kuzigama nk’uko bitangazwa na  Rugambwa Jean Marie ushinzwe guteza imbere isoko ry’imari muri BNR.

Mu kiganiro n’Imvaho Nshya yagize ati: “Nta bwo bikorwa na Leta yacu gusa, Leta zose zo ku Isi zikoresha ubwo buryo buha abatuye mu gihugu amahirwe yo gushora muri izo mpapuro mpeshamwenda kugira ngo bunganire ingengo y’imari y’umwaka hanyuma Leta ikayikoresha mu kugeza ibikorwa by’iterambere ku baturage”.

Ahakomotse inyito “Impapuro mpeshamwenda”

Rugambwa yagarutse ku mateka y’iri shoramari n’impamvu  hakoreshwa ijambo  “impapuro”, avuga ko  ari  uko kera hakoreshwaga impapuro zikaba zari nk’ikemezo (certificate) cy’uko wagurije Leta; umuntu akagura urwo rupapuro rugizwe n’udupande cyangwa uduce twinshi (coupons), buri mezi 6 agacaho kamwe akajya kuri BNR bakamuha inyungu y’ayo mezi, andi mezi yarangira akongera agacaho akandi kugeza igihe k’izo mpapuro cyagenwe kirangiriye.

Ubu hakoreshwa ikoranabuhanga ariko byakomeje kwitwa impapuro mpeshamwenda.

Ati: “Ubu kuko twageze mu ikoranabuhanga ntibigikorwa mu buryo bw’impapuro, kugira ngo ubashe gushora imari muri izo mpapuro ufungura konti y’ishoramari, ni nka konti yawe yo muri banki ubikaho amafaranga wajya kuyakoresha ukaba wakoresha ikarita cyangwa irindi koranabuhanga rihari. Iyo konti igufasha kubika izo mpapuro mpeshamwenda mu buryo bw’ikoranabuhanga”. Ibyo bituma zitangirika cyangwa ngo zibure.

Yakomeje avuga ko igihe cyose ushakiye kumenya uko izo mpapuro mpeshamwenda zingana ubaza banki yawe cyangwa BNR, ukabaha nomero yawe ya konti bakakubwira izo ufiteho.

Ati: “Ugura impapuro mpeshamwenda ariko nta bwo baziguha nk’impapuro ahubwo konti yawe ziba zabitsweho baba bayihuje na konti yawe yo muri banki usanzwe ukoresha ku buryo igihe k’inyungu iyo kigeze bahita bayishyira kuri iyo konti yawe”.

Bitewe n’igihe izo mpapuro mpeshamwenda zizamara baguha n’amatariki uzaboneraho inyungu. Izi mpapuro ngo zishyirwa  ku isoko buri kwezi  mu rwego rwo kwirinda ko hari ucikanwa.

Impapuro mpeshamwenda zigiye zitandukanye

Rugambwa Jean Marie avuga ko Impapuro mpeshamwenda zigiye zitandukanye bitewe n’igihe zimara.

Hari iz’igihe kigufi cy’umwaka umwe (Treasury Bills); ziva ku kwezi kumwe, amezi atatu, amezi atandatu n’umwaka.

Hari n’iz’igihe kirekire kigera ku myaka 3, 5, 7, 10, 15 n’imyaka 20, ari na zo ziri ku isoko kugeza ubu.

Amafaranga umuntu ashobora gutangiriraho azigura ni ibihumbi 100 kuzamura kugeza ku gaciro k’izashyizwe ku isoko.

Atanga urugero ko nko muri uku kwezi kwa Gashyantare izizashyirwa ku isoko zizaba zifite agaciro k’amafaranga  miriyari 15.

Ati: “Bivuze ko umuturage ufite amafaranga ibihumbi ijana yayashyiraho, ufite miriyoni imwe,  miriyari 5,… n’ufite miriyari 15 yayashyiraho”.

Hari uburyo bubiri bw’ishoramari

Rugambwa avuga ko hari uburyo bubiri bw’ishoramari; hari abazigura batabanje gupiganwa baba bazanye amafaranga ibihumbi 100 kuzamura kugeza munsi ya miriyoni 50. Abandi bagapiganwa ku isoko hagashyirwaho igiciro.

Agaragaza ko ntawuburiramo kubera porititi y’isaranganya ihari, kuko ngo hari igihe Leta iba yashyize ku isoko nka miriyari 15 hakaza abagura benshi ku buryo baba bakeneye nk’iza miriyari 30, 40,…

Ati: “Dufite poritiki y’isaranganya, ku isoko ry’ibanze tuba dushaka ko buri muntu abona impapuro mpeshamwenda agura; tukavuga tuti abantu ku giti cyabo turabagenera nka 15%, amabanki tuyagenere nka 30%, 55% bisigaye tukabigenera sosiyete z’ubwishingizi. Biterwa nuko ubwitabire buhagaze”.

Yakomeje avuga ko iyo  hari nk’uwazanye miriyoni 500, akabona gusa iz’agaciro ka miriyoni 300, ategereza ko zishyirwa ku isoko ry’imari n’imigabane kugira ngo mu gihe hari ushaka kuzigurisha ahite azimugurira azongere.

Hari isoko ry’ibanze n’isoko ry’imari n’imigabane

Rugambwa avuga ko impapuro mpeshamwenda zibanza kugurishwa ku isoko ry’ibanze aho agereranya nko ku kiranguzo, izaguzwe zose zikandikishwa ku isoko ry’imari n’imigabane kugira ngo bihe amahirwe abatabashije kuzigura ku isoko ry’ibanze.

Abashaka kuzigura ku isoko ry’imari n’imigabane banyura ku bitwa “Abahuza”; bahuza ugura n’ugurisha.

Yagize ati: “Niba ushaka kugura, uragenda ukabwira umuhuza uti ndashaka kugura akagushakira ugurisha, yamubona akabahuza mukumvikana igiciro ukagura, waba ushaka kugurisha nanone ukamubwira akagushakira ugura”.

Iyo ugejeje ku gihe k’iminsi 30 utabashije kuzigurisha ku isoko ry’imari n’imigabane kandi ukeneye amafaranga byihutirwa, icyo gihe BNR  yemeza ko bazikugurira mu buryo bwo guteza imbere isoko ry’imari n’imigabane.

Agaragaza ariko ko kuzigurisha ku isoko ry’imari n’imigabane mbere y’igihe zigomba kurangirira ushobora kunguka kuko mu giciro cyazo ubariramo inyungu bitewe n’igihe uzimaranye cyangwa ukabona amafaranga ari munsi y’ayo waziguze bitewe nuko isoko rihagaze.

Uko urwunguko ruhagaze

Rugambwa avuga ko  uko impapuro mpeshamwenda zigenda zigira igihe kirekire ari  na ko inyungu igenda yiyongera, iz’imyaka 3 zunguka 10,8%,  iz’imyaka 5 ziba ziri nko kuri 11% kuzamuka, iz’imyaka 7 na 10 ziba ziri kuri 12%, iz’imyaka 20 ziri kuri 13,25%.

Ati: “Buri mezi 6 bashyiraho inyungu; niba ari impapuro mpeshamwenda z’imyaka 3, inyungu akaba ari 10,8%, buri mezi 6 bazajya baguha igice k’iriya nyungu ni ukuvuga 5,4% kugeza igihe zizarangirira”.

Ku bijyanye nuko agaciro kazo gashobora kuzamuka cyangwa se kakamanuka bikaba byatuma  uwaziguze ahura n’igihombo, Rugambwa  yagize ati: “ Ibyo biterwa nuko ubukungu buhagaze, ariko akenshi igiciro cyazo giterwa n’umubare w’abazikeneye n’uw’abashaka kuzigurisha”.

Bishobora no guterwa n’ibiciro bigenda bihindagurika ku isoko.

Ibindi bigo by’imari bishobora kuzishyira ku isoko

Hari impapuro mpeshamwenda za Leta ari zo BNR ishyira ku isoko ariko n’ibindi bigo bisanzwe by’imari bishobora gushyiraho impapuro mpeshamwenda zabyo (Corporate Bonds) kugira ngo bibashe gukusanya amafaranga bishora mu bikorwa bitandukanye nko kwagura imikorere yabyo, gutanga inguzanyo nyinshi n’ibindi.

Impapuro mpeshamwenda zishobora no gushyirwa ku isoko mpuzamahanga

Rugambwa Jean Marie ushinzwe guteza imbere isoko ry’imari muri BNR, agaragaza ko Leta y’u Rwanda yigeze gushyira Impapuro mpeshamwenda ku isoko mpuzamahanga za miriyoni 400 z’amadorari kandi icyo gihe ngo abanyamahanga bitabiriye kuzigura. Gusa inyungu zaho ziba ziri hasi cyane ugereranyije n’iz’imbere mu Gihugu.

Ati: “Iyo Leta ishyize Impapuro mpeshamwenda ku isoko mpuzamahanga iba yagujije mu mafaranga y’amanyamahanga; mu madorari, ku buryo izanayishyura mu madorari icyo gihe biba bigoranye kwishyura mu madorari, ni yo mpamvu itanga amahirwe ku Banyarwanda ikabazanira iryo shoramari bakarishoramo mu manyarwanda ikazanabasha kwishyura mu manyarwanda ku buryo buyoroheye”.

Yakomeje avuga ko iherutse no gukorana na  Banki y’Isi izigurisha ku bashoramari mpuzamahanga ibona amadorari  iyavunja na BNR kugira ngo ibone (Banki y’Isi) amafaranga y’amanyarwanda, iyashora igura impapuro mpeshamwenda za Leta y’u Rwanda.

Ubu akaba ari uburyo bushya Banki y’Isi ishaka kujya ikoresha iguriza ibihugu biri mu muryango  wayo.

Mu mwaka wa 2008, nibwo Leta yatangiye gushyira ku isoko  Impapuro Mpeshamwenda z’igihe kirekire, kuva icyo gihe zitabirwaga n’ibigo by’imari n’ibigo by’ubwishingizi gusa, ariko kuva muri 2014 niho Abanyarwanda batangiye kubyigishwa, batangira gushoramo imari.

Umwanditsi:

Tumukunde Georgine

One Comment on “Ibyo wamenya ku mpapuro mpeshamwenda Leta y’u Rwanda ishyira ku isoko”

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