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CHOGM 2020 mu Rwanda, amateka ya Commonwealth

CHOGM 2020 mu Rwanda, amateka ya Commonwealth

Yanditswe na Mugabo Lambert

Ku ya 23-04-2019 saa 16:09:27

Umuryango Commonwealth nk’uko bigaragara mu mateka yawo, nta bwo watangiye ari ko witwa. Ku ikubitiro witwaga “British Commonwealth of Nations”, uza guhinduka “Commonwealth of Nations”, na byo ubivaho witwa Commonwealth nk’uko witwa ubu. Ubu ni umuryango ugizwe n’ibihugu 53 byigenga.

Ibihugu byose bihuriye muri Commonwealth nta bwo byose ariko byakoronijwe n’u Bwongereza. Commonwealth mbere yafatwaga nk’ihuriro ry’ibihugu byari bihuriye mu Ngoma y’u Bwongereza (British Empire). Mu 1884, ubwo yasuraga Australia, Lord Rosebery (yari Minisitiri w’Intebe w’u Bwongereza), ni bwo yatanze ishusho yo guhinduka kwa “British Empire”, ari bwo ibihugu byari bihuriye mu bukoroni bw’u Bwongereza byafatwaga nk’Ingoma y’Abongereza (British Empire) byabaye nk’ibyigenga, maze icyari “British Empire” gihinduka “British Commonwealth of Nations”.

Kuva mu 1887 buri gihe habagaho inama yahuzaga ba Minisitiri b’Intebe b’ibihugu bitanu (byari byarakoronijwe n’u Bwongereza), iza kugeza aho ikora ikitwaga “Imperial Conferences”, hari mu 1911. “Imperial Conferences” ni yo yaje gukura, ibyara Commonwealth y’iki gihe biturutse ku iyemeranywa ry’ibyo bihugu ryo gushyiraho “British Commonwealth of Nations” mu 1921.

Mu masezerano ya Balfour yo mu 1926, u Bwongereza n’ibihugu bwari bukoronije byemeranyijwe ko ari ibihugu bireshya mu mategeko, ko nta gihugu gisumba ikindi, kandi ko buri gihugu kigenga mu Munyamuryango “British Commonwealth of Nations”. Ubu bwumvikane bwaje kwemezwa n’amategeko ya Westminster (Statue of Westminster) mu 1931.

Nyuma y’Intambara ya kabiri y’Isi, “British Empire” yarakuze ikomeza kuyoborwa n’u Bwongereza. Muri Mata 1949, hagendewe ku masezerano ya London, ijambo British ryavanywe kuri “British Commonwealth of Nations”, hasigara “Commonwealth of Nations”. Icyo gihe icyari kigamijwe ni ukwerekana impinduka, kugira ngo ibihugu byose byibone mu Muryango.

Uko Commonwealth yakuraga, byageze mu myaka ya 1940 ibona ingufu, ndetse bisa n’ibitangiye bundi bushya kuko Commonwealth yo mu bihe byabanje batangiye kuyita “Old Commonwealth” cyangwa se “Commonwealth ishaje”. Ibi byagaragaye ubwo uwitwaga Lord Davies wagize uruhare rugaragara mu gushyiraho “League of Nations Union” (yasimbuwe na United Nations-Umuryango w’Abibumbye) nyuma y’intambara ya mbere y’Isi, akaba mu 1932 yarashyizeho ikitwaga “New Commonwealth Movement” ikaba yari iyobowe na Winston Churchill nka perezida.

“New Commonwealth Movement” yari isosiyete ifite intego yo gushyiraho ingabo mpuzamahanga zirwanira mu kirere za “League of Nations”, zigafasha mu kugarura amahoro (kuko hari nyuma y’intambara ya mbere y’Isi). Mu myaka ya 1960 na 1970, “New Commonwealth” byakomeje gukoreshwa no kuvugwa mu Bwongereza iyo bashakaga kuvuga ibihugu bivuye mu bukoroni “decolonised countries”.

Ibihugu byose bigize uyu muryango biba byiyemeje kugendera ku masezerano ya Singapore, ari yo “Singapore Declaration”. Aya masezerano asaba igihugu cyose kiri cyangwa kifuza kujya muri Commonwalth kuba ari igihugu kigendera ku mahame ya Demukarasi, cyubahiriza uburenganzira bwa muntu, imiyoborere myiza, kigendera ku mategeko, ubwisanzure bw’abagituye, uburinganire, kuba igihugu gifite ubucuruzi bwigenga, ubwisanzure mu mitwe ya politiki, giharanira n’amahoro ku Isi. Commonwealth ni Umuryango uhuriramo ibihugu bifite imico itandukanye, binafite amateka mu by’ubukungu na politiki bitandukanye, ariko byose bigafatwa ko bingana mu Muryango no mu mategeko awugena. Commonwealth kandi ni forumu ihuriramo imiryango myinshi itagengwa na Leta, uko iri hamwe ikora ikitwa “Commonwealth Family”.

Intego za Commonwealth

Intego za Commonwealth zashyizweho bwa mbere mu 1971, zishyirwaho n’amasezerano ya Singapore, aho yavugaga ko Commonwealth igamije amahoro y’Isi, guteza imbere Demukarasi n’uburenganzira bwa muntu, uburinganire bw’amoko, kurwanya ubukene, indwara no gushyigikira ubucuruzi bwigenga. Kuri izi ntego hiyongereyeho iyo kurwanya ivangura rishingiye ku gitsina yemejwe n’amasezerano ya Lusaka mu 1979, ndetse n’iyo kurengera ibidukikije yashyizweho n’amasezerano ya Langkawi mu 1989.

Izi ntego zose zongeye gushimangirwa n’amasezerano ya Harare yo mu 1991. Nyamara ariko intego nyamukuru ya Commonwealth ni uguharanira Demukarasi n’iterambere nk’uko byemejwe mu masezerano ya Aso Rock yo muri 2003. Izi ntego zikaza zubakira ku masezerano ya Singapore na Harare, bikagaragarira mu magambo agira ati “Twiyemeje demukarasi, imiyoborere myiza, uburenganzira bwa muntu, uburinganire bw’ibitsina, ariko kandi cyane cyane inyungu z’ubufatanye bw’ibihugu.”

CHOGM 2020 mu Rwanda, amateka ya Commonwealth

Inama y’Abakuru b’Ibihugu na za Guverinoma

Inama ihuza abakuru b’ibihugu na za Guverinoma bigize uyu Muryango iba iyobowe n’Umwamikazi Elizabeth II. Hagendewe ku masezerano ya London, Queen Elizabeth II ni we muyobozi wa Commonwealth (Head of the Commonwealth). Ariko, iyo Umwamikazi atanze, umusimbuye ahita aba umuyobozi wa Commonwealth, ahubwo hari abanyamuryango 16 ba Commonwealth bagize ikitwa “Commonwealth realms”, ni bo bashyiraho umwamikazi nk’umuyobozi wa Commonwealth.

Ibyemezo byose bikomeye birebana na Commonwealth bifatirwa mu nama ihuza Abakuru b’ibihugu na za Guverinoma bigize Commonwealth ari yo “Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting” (CHOGM) ari yo u Rwanda ruzakira umwaka utaha, ikazaba ari iya 26. Aba bayobozi barahura kugira ngo baganire ku bibazo ndetse n’inyungu z’Umuryango. CHOGM ni yo yasimbuye “Imperial Conference”.

CHOGM kandi yanasimbuye inama yahuzaga ibihugu byari bikoronijwe n’u Bwongereza, yabaga mbere ya 1887. Umuyobozi wa Guverinoma uba uyoboye inama y’abakuru ba za Guverinoma yitwa “Commonwealth Chairperson-in-Officer”. Aba akora aka kazi kugeza igihe habereye indi CHOGM agasimburwa n’undi.

Marlborough House i London mu murwa mukuru w’u Bwongereza ni ho hakorera ikicaro gikuru cy’Ubunyamabanga bwa Commonwealth (Commonwealth Secretariat). Ubunyamabanga bwa Commonwealth bwashyizweho mu 1965, bukaba buhuza ibihugu byose biri muri Commonwealth, bugafasha mu guteza imbere imikoranire hagati y’ibihugu bigize uyu Muryango. Ubunyamabanga bw’uyu Muryango ni nabwo butegura inama za Commonwealth.

Ubunyamabanga bwa Commonwealth buyobowe n’Umunyamabanga Mukuru wa Commonwealth (Commonwealth Secretary-General) utorwa na CHOGM mu gihe kingana n’imyaka ibiri ikomeza kongerwa igihe cyose gishoboka iyo bibaye ngombwa.

U Rwanda muri Commonwealth

U Rwanda rwemerewe kwinjira muri Commonwealth mu nama ya CHOGM yabereye mu gihugu cya Trinidad and Tobago ku itariki ya 29 Ugushyingo 2009. U Rwanda rwinjiye muri Commonwealth hashingiwe ku bintu bine, ari byo demukarasi n’uburyo ishyirwa mu bikorwa nko gukora amatora mu mucyo no mu bwisanzure, kugendera ku mategeko n’ubwigenge bw’inzego z’ubutabera, imiyoborere myiza no gukorera mu mucyo. Ibindi byagendeweho ni ukurinda no kubahiriza uburenganzira bwa muntu, uburenganzira bwo gutanga ibitekerezo no gutanga amahirwe angana ku batuye igihugu mu bibakorerwa.

U Rwanda ni igihugu cya kabiri nyuma ya Mozambique kinjiye muri Commonwealth kitarakoronijwe n’u Bwongereza. Ku munsi wa Commonwealth (ku wa mbere wa kabiri w’ukwezi kwa Werurwe), hari ku itariki ya 8 Werurwe 2010, ni bwo ibendera ry’u Rwanda ryazamuwe mu yandi imbere y’Ubunyamabanga Bukuru bwa Commonwealth “Marlborough House” i London.

Perezida Paul Kagame wari witabiriye uwo muhango, mu kiganiro n’abanyamakuru yagarutse ku kuba u Rwanda rwaremerewe kwinjira muri uyu Muryango. Kagame muri icyo kiganiro yari kumwe na Patrick Manning wari Minisitiri w’Intebe wa Trinidad Tobago (ni we wari chair-in-office), uwari Umunyamabanga Mukuru wa Commonwealth Kamalesh Sharma (2008-2016) na Eduardo del Buey, umuyobozi w’itumanaho mu Bunyamabanga Bukuru bwa Commonwealth.

Ibihugu byibumbiye muri Commonwealth bifite ubuso bungana na Km2 31,500,000 (12,200,000 sq mi) cyangwa se 21% by’ubuso bw’Isi yose, n’abaturage miriyari 2.4.

TANGA IGITEKEREZO

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